BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 11 (2009)
On studying of the Àeneolithic cultures of Tyumen Low Tobol basin
The article is devoted to the questions of studying the Aeneolithic cultures of Tyumen Low Tobol basin. The analysis of the accumulated archaeological data allowed to combine the Lybayevo and Bairyk antiquities considered earlier as independent cultural formations within the limits of one archaeological culture. The designation of this archaeological culture was proposed as “Bairyk-Lybayevo” in which it is suggested to single out two local variants: northern (Bairyk) and southern (Lybayevo).
The Aeneolithic Age, the Lipchino culture, Tyumen Low Tobol basin, the Bajryk-Lybayevo culture, retreating-pricked pottery, short ridge stamp, long ridge stamp, ridge-and-pit ornamented dishes.
Zakh V.À., Skochina S.N.
The early complex from Mergen’-6 settlement in the Low Ishim basin (after the materials of 1990, 2002 and 2004)
The article considers the materials of one of the best studied Neolithic settlements in the Low Ishim basin, referring to the Koshkino stage of the Boborykino culture. The settlement is located on the edge of a cape, with its dwellings, considerable in the area, surrounded, most probably, with industrial constructions. The pottery and stone inventory are similar to the complexes from the settlements of that time in the Low Ishim and Tobol basins. The well preserved bone inventory and osteological materials allow to reconstruct the economy of the ancient population based on the shut-off fishing, with a considerable role of hunting and various household activities.
Low Ishim basin, the Mergen’ lake, settlement, the Koshkino complex, pottery, stone and bone inventory, shut-off fishing.
Chemical and metallurgic groups of metal in Sintashta culture
The article is devoted to studying chemical composition of non-ferrous metal of Sintashta culture in the early II-nd millennium B.C., basing on the materials of burial places of Krivoye Ozero, Kamenny Ambar 5, Sintashta II, Gerasimovka 2. The data of atomic-emission spectrometric analysis fixed the application of binary alloys, as well as complex three- four- and five-component bronzes with arsenic, tin, lead, zinc, and antimony hardeners. The binary alloys of copper and arsenic served as a leading (about 80 %) metallurgic group, as to multi-component alloys containing arsenic, a share of arsenic bronzes reaches 93 %. The area of Sintashta metal is related to different groups of fields in the high Urals basin: Tash-Kazgan, Nikolskoye, Vorovskaya Yama, Ishkinino, Gayevo, Ivanovka. For casting, they purposefully selected both oxidized (malachite, cuprite) and arsenic- and nickel-containing deposits of the south High Urals basin.
Sintashta culture, south High Urals basin, Bronze Age, non-ferrous metal working, metallurgic groups.
History of studying of the Koptyaky culture
The article cites data on historiography of singling out the Koptyaky pottery type and evolution of the ideas regarding development of the Koptyaky archaeological culture of the Bronze Age in the High Urals basin.
Bronze Age, High Urals basin, Low Tobol basin, the Koptyaky culture, the Koptyaky pottery type.
Technology of making dishes with the Fyodorovo culture from the settlement of Tcheryomukhovy Koust (basing on the materials of 1–3 dwellings)
Subject to introduction into the scientific circulation being new data on technology of pottery production with the Fyodorovo culture, basing on the materials of the settlement of Tcheryomukhovy Koust. Resulting from technical and technological analysis of the pottery, the author identifies the traditions of selection and preparation of the initial plastic raw material, preparation of molding masses, treatment of articles’ surfaces, possible temperature conditions of roasting.
The settlement of Tcheryomukhovy Koust, the Fyodorovo culture, pottery, technical and technological analysis, initial raw material, molding mass, chamotte, organic substances, gruss, making of vessels, treatment of surfaces, roasting.
Tsembalyuk S.I., Zimina Î.Yu., Ryabogina N.Ye., Ivanov S.N.
Investigation of Chechkino 4 settlement in Yarkovo District of Tyumen region
The article cites investigation results regarding the multi-layer settlement of Chechkino 4 located in the subtaiga zone of the Low Tobol basin. The basic complex of the findings as well as the investigated construction refer to the Tchetkovo stage of the Barkhatovo culture of the late Bronze Age. Apart from this, subject to obtaining from the pits, being a minor complex of the Baitovo culture findings of the early Iron Age, together with single pottery fragments of the Aeneolithic Age and Mediaeval Age.
Low Tobol basin, late Bronze Age, the Barkhatovo culture, early Iron Age, the Baitovo culture, Mediaeval Age, the Yudino culture, spore-and-pollen analysis, reconstruction of natural environment of ancient societies.
The fortified settlement of Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 in the Low Ishim basin
The work considers the materials of a multilayer fortified settlement of Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 located at the high native terrace of the Ishim river, to the South-East of Ishim. The ground between two ravines is limited by two hetero-temporal pairs of ditches and ramparts. An early system of defense represented by a broad shapeless rampart and quite a deep ditch, judging from the radiocarbon data and the pottery, refers to the end of the transition time from Bronze to early Iron (late Zhuravlevo complexes). The fortifications in the form of a rampart with two bastions and the outer ditch are associated with the Bakalovo pottery and constructed, judging from the radiocarbon data on the coal from the rampart in the early IIIrd century A.D.
Low Ishim basin, fortified settlement, transition time from Bronze to Iron, the Zhuravlevo complexes, early Mediaeval Age, the Bakalovo culture, early IIIrd century A.D.
Òkachev À.À., Tkachev Al.Al.
The Pakhomovo complex at the settlement of Os’kino Boloto
The article considers the materials of the Pakhomovo cultural complex of the Late Bronze Age obtained under investigation of a multilayer settlement of Os’kino Boloto. The authors touch upon questions of arrangement and supply of the Pakhomovo settlement, as well as of its house building, household, metallurgic production, chronology and dating of the Pakhomovo antiquities. The analysis of the pottery and clothing material tesitifies to a comparatively early chronological position of this settlement in the system of late Bronze complexes of the Low Tobol basin.
Low Tobol basin, the Pakhomovo culture, settlement, dwelling, household, bronze casting production, inventory, pottery.
The settlement of Mullashy Yurty 7
The paper describes the results of the archaeological investigation at the settlement of Mullashy Yurty 7. The author gives a characteristic of the inventory, pottery and paleozoological material, and a description of the dwellings.
Early Iron Age, the Kashino culture, Sargatka culture.
Poshekhonova Î.Ye., Semyonova V.I.
Findings from the Nenets sacred sledge in the basin of the Big Kheta river on Taimyr Peninsular
The article presents the investigation results by the archaeological and ethnographic expedition from the Institute of Northern Development, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, on the territory of Taimyr Peninsula. Subject to analysis being a set of articles obtained from the Nenets sacred sledge dated by the time period from the XVIIth century to the first quarter of the XX century. The articles were accumulated and put into the sacred sledge during a long time, with every keeper adding certain valuables. Part of the articles was made by the Nenets themselves, while some of those fell into the keepers’ hands through changing and purchasing. Also, basing on literary data as well as on the finding from the sacred sledge, the authors singled out a series of plates with a complex multi-figured plot, popular in Siberia in the XVII century.
West Siberia, late Mediaeval Age, New Time, archaeology, ethnography, Nenets, articles from the sacred sledge, plates with a multi-figured plot.