BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 1 (12) (2010)
Zakh V.A., Isayev D.N.
Early pottery and development of combed and combed-pitted ornamental traditions in the Neolithic Àge of Tobol and Ishim region
The article considers a question on origin of pottery making in Tobol and Ishim region and development of local ornamental traditions of combed culture in the Low Tobol basin and of combed-pitted culture in the Low Ishim basin. Making of dishes and retreating-scratched ornamentation was introduced by bearers of the Boborykino culture into the medium of local Mesolithic population. In the process of assimilation aboriginal women began to ornament pottery in their own manner, starting probably with imitating seams maybe of birch-bark vessels. Analyzing seams on modern birch-bark articles, one can find analogies with ancient ornaments, such as "stepping comb", as well as rows of horizontal and vertical prints. Gradually, most probably due to ethnic diffe-rences between the population of the Low Tobol basin and that of the Low Ishim basin, the combed tradition disintegrated into two areas: combed and combed-pitted ones, respectively.
Tobol and Ishim region, appearance of pottery, the Boborykino and Koshkino dishes, sewing birch-bark together, imitation of seams, combed and combed-pitted ornamental traditions.
Aeneolithic complex of Kurja 1 multilayer settlement
The present article is devoted to investigation results regarding materials on the Bajryk and Lybayevo culture of Kurja 1 multilayer settlement in the sub-taiga Low Tobol basin. During investigation of the site it was determined that the settlement territory was opened up by the Bajryk and Lybayevo communities twice: in the early III millennium B.C. and in the middle – last quarter of III millennium B.C. A hetero-temporal nature of the complexes is testified by data of relative chronology, typology of pottery collections and certain features of stone industry. The available materials enable to conclude that specificity of the «sub-taiga» cultural sites generally copied processes typical for the Bajryk and Lybayevo antiquities of the forest and steppe zone. Archaeological materials make it possible to assume a leading role of hunting in economy of the culture’s bearers, with a subordinated role of fishing.
Òhe Bajryk-Lybayevo culture, the Andreyevo culture, the Aeneolithic Age, early Bronze Age, sinkers, stone industry, ornamentation, hunting, fishing, retreating-and-pricked technique, “long ridged” style, “short ridged” manner, “larva”-like stamp.
Tkachev A.A., Volkov Ye.N.
Complexes of the Neolithic — Early Bronze Ages at Plotinnoye settlement
The article considers early building horizons of Plotinnoye multilayer settlelment localized in the system of the Duvan river. Hetero-temporal complexes of that time refer to Neolithic, Aeneolithic and early Bronze Ages, while in cultural respect, to the Kozlovo, Boborykino, Koshkino, Sosnovoostrov, Poluden, Bajryk-Lybayevo, Andreyevo cultures and the Imbiryaj type of sites. The data characterizing development of Bajryk-Lybayevo Aeneolithic antiquities being the most informative. It is determined that bearers of the culture opened up that territory minimum twice, during early and late Aeneolithic Age. The early stage of the Aeneolithic Age is associated with a set of materials from pits 12–16, excavation 1, possibly of cultic or burial character, and probably a collection from excavation 4 (late IV — early III millennium B.C.), though the basic part of the Bajryk-Lybayevo complex is dated by the first third of III millennium B.C.
Neolithic Age, Aeneolithic Age, early Bronze Age, the Andreyevo culture, the Bajryk-Lybajevo culture, the Imbiryaj type of sites, stone industry, raw materials base, ornamentation, long ridged stamp, short ridged stamp, retreating-and-pricked technique, arrow-head of the Kel’teminar type, notched retouch.
Yen’shin D.N., Belonogov D.A.
On methods of studying dwellings of the Neolithic Age on the territory of West Siberia (illustrated by reconstruction of dwelling 5, settlement Mergen’ 6)
The work considers problems and perspectives in the investigation of ancient dwellings and house-building traditions during the Neolithic Age on the territory of West Siberia. Illustrated by dwelling 5 settlement Mergen’ 6, it considers a possibility of using method of theoretical reconstructions as the first stage in revealing particulars and regularities of a house-building technique with ancient population.
Neolithic Age, West Siberia, Low Ishim basin, settlement Mergen’ 6, problems of house-building, method of theoretical reconstructions.
On origin of the Botajsk culture
The article analyses the state of things regarding origin of the Botajsk culture. It comes to a conclusion that viewpoints on the problem are both controversial and discrepant. Practically every opinion declared thereon is declarative, without being supported by concrete practical investigations. A special research on this problem has been never made. Certain analogies of the Botajsk culture materials found outside Ural-and-Kazakhstan region, make it possible to doubt its autochthonous nature putting a question of special investigation on that problem.
Òhe Botajsk culture, North Kazakhstan, forest zone of East Europe, Aeneolithic Age, origin, auto-chthonous nature, analogies.
Morphology and technology of making ornaments of the Sintashta culture
The article cites data on types of metal ornaments popular with tribes of the Sintashta culture, types of alloys used for their manufacturing, as well as data on technological particulars of getting ornaments. The majority of the Sintashta ornaments made of tin or complex tin-and-arsenic bronze finds closest analogies in the medium of the Petrovka culture, drawing to a conclusion on existence of close contacts between representatives of the cultures. At the same time, a number of ornamental types and technological features of their making testify to morphological and technological closeness between the Sintashta and catacomb articles.
Òhe Sintashta culture, morphology of ornamentations, typology, types of alloys, variants of manufacturing technology.
New investigations on Atchisu burial place
Subject to introduction into scientific circulation being results of new investigations regarding Atchisu burial mound place located in the eastern part of Central Kazakhstan. The site’s materials enable to include it into the area of occurrence of chariot cultures in Steppe Eurasia attributing it to the Nurtaj antiquities.
Atchisu, mound, stratigraphy, burial place, arrow-head, pottery.
Continuum measurement of the Andronovo ornaments
The Andronovo ornaments are attributed to a class of rectilinear ones. It means that all elements of these ornaments represent either infinite lines or line-segments. Upon two-dimensional surfaces, these elements are oriented along certain number of vectors. Systems of vectors corresponding to these or those ornaments have been called two-dimensional continuums. The diversity of the continuums is limited, determined by number of vectors containing in those, and by their orientation in the space. Each of the continuums is a taxon with corresponding ornaments concentrated therein. The obtained eleven continuums-taxons enable to perform different grouping of the Andronovo ornaments. Variants of these groupings have been called k-metry. The new method makes it possible to take a new view of properties, contents and evolution of the Andronovo ornaments.
Òhe Andronovo ornaments, two-dimensional continuums, continuums-taxons, k-metry, properties, contents, evolution.
Bronze plates of the Alakul culture
The article identifies basic types of metal plates of the Alakul culture dated by late Bronze Age. Resulting from spectral and atomic-emission investigation, it clarifies technological features of these articles. Subject to determination being a probable territory of the ornaments’ origin and their spreading area, including the Tobol and Ishim basin, Central and North Kazakhstran.
Òhe Alakul culture, typology, plates, metallographic investigation, the Tobol and Ishim basin.
On the Kyptchak constituent in the culture of the mediaeval population of Kuznetsk hollow (after materials of Shabanovo 9 excavations)
The article investigates a question of participation by the Kyptchaks in the ethnocultural history of Kuznetsk hollow during the developed Middle Ages. Subject to publication being materials of excavations with regard to a single mound of Shabanovo 9. The author classifies artefacts, researching a question of their dating and proving that this site belongs to culture of the mediaeval Kyptchaks, which indicates at presence of the Kyptchak constituent in the culture of the mediaeval population of Kuznetsk hollow.
Kuznetsk hollow, the developed Middle Ages, the Kyptchaks, material culture.
Zakh V.A., Chikunova I.Yu.
The mediaeval burial ground of Vakh-Kur (after materials of 1986, 1987)
The article presents investigation materials on Vakh-Kur soil burial ground, one of the few necropolises of the mediaeval Yudino culture. It is located in the heart of a cape at the junction of the Tobol and Tap rivers, on a floodplain on small ridged hillocks. On the surface, the graves are located in groups, traced as rows of small oval pits. Most probably, it has been robbed. Burials are located in shallow pits, mainly with west and north-west orientation of the buried. Judging by the inventory represented by dishes, bronze belt plates, ornaments, iron knives and arrow-heads, the burial ground functioned in X–XIII cc. A.D.
Òhe Low Tobol basin, Yurtobor, Vakh-Kur burial ground, burials, the Yudino culture.