BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 2 (13) (2010)
Zakh V.A., Skochina S.N.
Stone Raw Materials from Complexes of Tobol and Ishim Basin
Basing on a petrographic analysis of tools from sites of Mesolithic Age — Early metal Age from Tobol and Ishim basin, the article considers penetration routes of stone raw materials into the region. The inventory shows that the stone mainly originates from the territory of South Urals and Êàzakh hillocky area, while its minor part — from fluvial gravels and Irtysh right bank of Abalak region. Since Neolithic Age, it starts a reduction in using quartzy sandstones originating from local fluvial gravels and Êàzakh hillocky area and increasing a portion of jasperoids from South Urals. At the same time, what tends to increase being a portion of tools made of shale which as a raw material starts dominating during the Early metal Age.
Òîbol and Ishim interfluve, South Urals, Êàzakh hillocky area, Mesolithic Age, Neolithic Age, Early metal, petrography, quartzy sandstones, jasperoids, shales.
On Studying Art of Mini Shapes of Siberian Neolithic – Aeneolithic Age (illustrated by analysis of image of a bear)
The investigation is aimed at identification of stylistic and territorial details regarding images of a bear on the territory of Siberia. The paper represents basic stylistic and iconographic techniques. Miniature sculptures being grouped after distinctions and style of making, i.e. realistic, conventionally-realistic, silhouette and stylized ones; subject to identification being groups after shapes of plastic art, i.e. three-dimensional; flat; relief; and bas-relief ones. A majority of mini bear sculptures have been registered on the territory of West Siberia (Trans-Ural region). As a rule, it is a three-dimensional sculpture made in a realistic manner. For East Siberia — it is a flat sculpture either in a realistic or stylized manner. The author makes conclusions on functional and semantic purposes of bear figurines: amulets; pendants; «insignia of power»; details of dishes and other household objects.
Neolithic Age, Aeneolithic Age, primitive art, style, iconography, fine plastic art, Siberia, image of a bear, world-outlook.
On Methods of Reconstruction regarding Household and Elements of of Land Use System with Bearers of Ancient Cultures from the Middle Low Tobol Basin
The article is devoted to elaboration of methods with regard to reconstruction of basic elements of household and a land use system of Neolithic — Early Bronze Age cultures from the Middle Low Tobol basin. For lack of immediate sources of such reconstructions represented by osteological data the author suggests a multiple approach based on combining archaeological, ethnographic and natural-science methods. In order to get important additional information he advises a broad using of cartographic data: geomorphological, landscape ones, etc., which, as the author believes, make it possible to get extra information on the required questions. An indispensable condition of correct reconstruction stays correlation of results obtained by using one and the same method, by data of other scientific branches.
Middle Low Tobol basin, geomorphology, paleo-soil science, spore-and-pollen analysis, mapping of archaeological sites, cultural layer, household, land use system, archaeology, ethnography, correlation of obtained results, saturation of cultural layer, landscape confinement of sites.
Degtyareva À.D., Grushin S.P., Shaikhoutdinov V.Ì.
Metal Working with Population of the Yelunino Culture from the Upper Ob’ (preliminary results of a metallographic investigation)
The article cites data on development of metal process with population of the Yelunino culture (last quarter of III — first quarter of II millennium B.C.) from the Ob’-and-Irtysh basin. Basing on using data of metallographic and X-ray-fluorescent analysis regarding metal articles, the authors consider technological questions of bronze foundry work and raw material sources.
Bronze Age, Ob’-and-Irtysh basin, Yelunino culture, technology of non-ferrous metal working, typo-logy of metal.
Yepimakhov À. V.
În the Sintashta Agriculture (Bronze Age in the South Urals)
The article considers evidences of the Sintashta population being familiar with agriculture. The most part of the tools treated as agricultural could be related to the field of metal and wood working. Carpological data is represented by single examples, while palynological analyses also lack giving an unambiguous answer, due to cultural and chronological ambiguity of the samples. Similar problems are connected with hydraulic structures. Yield calculations and isotope analysis of anthropological remains show that a portion of vegetation food in the food system was insignificant.
Bronze Age, South Urals, sites of the Syntashta type, agriculture.
Zakh V.A., Ilyushina V.V.
Dishes of the Fyodorovo Culture from the Low Tobol Basin (after data from the settlement of Tcheryomoukhovy Koust)
The article considers data of the
Fyodorovo culture from the settlement of Tcheryomoukhovy Koust. The
authors undertook a statistical analysis after data of technical and technological analysis as well as ornamentation of pottery complex, which made it possible to identify not only dynamics of the settlement development, but also its possible structure as place of residing dual-exogamic collective.
Low Tobol basin, settlement of Tcheryomoukhovy Koust, Fyodorovo culture, pottery, ornamentation, technical and technological analysis, statistical analysis, exogamy.
Òroitskaya T.N., Àvtoushkova À.L.
The Ust’-Tartas Burial Ground (after excavation data by S.M. Chugunov)
For the first time, subject to a complete publication being data from mounds of Ust’-Tartas burial ground excavated by S.M. Chugunov in 1895 and 1896 at the Om’ river in the Low Tobol basin. The majority of burials is referred to the Sargatka culture and dated back by early centuries A.D. The graves are surrounded with circular ditches, one could also trace actions associated with the cult of fire. Two graves are medieval and referred to Turkic time.
Low Tobol basin, Sargatka culture, mounds, early centuries A.D., Turkic time.
Earthenware Plastic Art from Tcherepanikha 2 Hillfort
New findings of earthenware plastic art in the cultural layer of Tcherepanikha 2 hillfort located in Nizhnyaya Tavda District, Tyumen Oblast are broadening a distribution typology and geography of earthenware anthropomorphic figurines in the Low Irtysh basin.
Medieval Age, Trans-Ural region, earthenware plastic art, anthropomorphic figurines.
Êàidalov À.I., Sechko Ye.À., Êîlmogorov P.À.
A Medieval Complex of Ust’-Utyak-1 Hillfort; Interpretation and Chronology
The article is devoted to medieval data obtained under investigation of a multilayer Ust’-Utyak 1 hillfort located in Keta District, Kourgan Oblast. A pottery complex of that period could be mainly referred to the Bakalda culture. Besides, it was the Koushnarenkovo and Karym pottery that was found. Subject to consideration being questions of house building, fortification and household. Generally, the complex could be referred to Early Medieval Age.
Early Medieval Age, fortified settlement, house building, Bakalda culture, Koushnarenkovo pottery.
Òîbolsk Potter's Stamps of the XVII-th century
The article is devoted to studying earthenware stamps from Tobolsk archaeological collections of XVII century. The findings serve an important characteristic with regard to development level of potter’s craft. The found specimens represent pictures of «a wheel», «a cross in a circle», «a diagonal cross in a rectangle». The said stamps’ pictures being traditionally related with magic symbols, and probably, reflect complex world-outlook of Ancient Tobolsk dwellers.
Tobolsk, XVII-th century, pottery complexes, potter’s stamps, variant.
New Data on the History of House Building in the Early Half of XVIII Century in Tobolsk
During a reconstruction of a roadbed in S. Remezov’s Avenue in Tobolsk they found a part of a town dwel-ling house dating back to late XVII — early half of XVIII century. It represents a dwelling construction with an entrance passage, fitting just partially the excavations’ boundaries, together with a part of its western fence. To the west of the dwelling house, subject to investigation being a part of a town street. The archaeological investigations resulted in getting new data on the history of Siberian house building in the first half of XVIII century, allowing to develop an idea on technique and methods of construction under domination of wooden dwelling buiding which basis was made by complex of dwelling and household structures.
History of house building, West Siberia, XVIII century, complex of dwelling and household structures, lodging, oven.