BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 1 (14) (2011)
Ethnography and ethnic history
Image details of Samsaj-ojka — a domestic spirit-the-protector with North Mansi
The article gives a description of eight images of Samsaj-ojka — a domestic spirit-the protector with North Mansi, determining his typical features expressed in composing parts of his figure, as well as in fabric, color, and cut of his garment. The author comes to the conclusion that what is predominantly typical for Samsaj-ojka image being the dark color of his garment and availability of a cone-shaped or trapezoidal cap, most often sewn to his shoulder garment. A comparative-historical analysis of Samsaj-ojka images of late XIX — early XXI c. shows the dynamics of replacing traditional fabrics with imported ones, as well as simplifying the garment’s cut, and transi-ting from use of colored fabrics to those of predominantly dark colour.
North Mansi, domestic spirit-the-protector, Samsaj-ojka, anthropomorphic figure, image, garment, dressing gown, shirt, cap, cut, money stock, arsyn, sacrifice.
Picture of the world as the basis of communicative culture with the Altai peoples
The article discloses mythological parameters of picture of the world with the Altai peoples, which is for the first time treated as the basis of their traditional communicative culture, tracing Nature-Man interrelation in accordance with their ethnic worldview, and describing semantics of the inner space in a traditional dwelling of the Altai peoples in connection with their etiquette prescriptions. Into their picture of the world, they laid codes of the earth world and afterworld, as well as a program of their ritual behavior without which functioning of their communicative culture stays impossible.
Picture of the world, the Altai peoples, etiquette, symbol.
Komi toponymy in the North of West Siberia. To the question of settlement boundaries of Komi-Izhemtsy
The article considers questions of distribution regarding Komi toponyms on the territory of Yamal-Nenetz and Khanty-Mansi National Regions in connection with development history of West Siberia by Komi-Izhemtsy. Basing on the data taken from geographical maps, historical-and-ethnographic descriptions, toponymic reference books and vocabularies, subject to identification being territories where, to a greater or lesser extent, one can observe Komi geographical names. Subject to analysis being reasons of Komi toponyms to appear in Yamal-Nenetz and Khanty-Mansi National Regions, as well as boundaries of their distribution.
North of West Siberia, geographical names, Komi-Izhemtsy, distribution boundaries, inter-ethnical relations.
Ecological aspects of traditional forest activities with old residents (Russians, Komi) in Obdorsk region (second half of XIX — first third of ÕÕ century)
The article investigates the experience of nature management and nature knowledge with old residents (Russians, Komi) in Obdorsk region in the second half of XIX — first third of XÕ century; the interaction between natural environment and development branches of the regional traditional economic structure, and results of that interaction for landscape and relief systems and biocenoses.
Old residents (Russians, Komi); hunting objects; hunting territory; hunting methods; nature know-ledge; wood stocking; collection; changes of natural environment.
Yermakova Ye.Ye., Liskevich N.A.
Sacral geography of Izhemtsy from Low Ob’ area
Basing on field materials, the article considers practice of ritual space development with Komi from Low Ob’ area, which material markers being votive and roadside crosses. It traces history of appearance of the sacral objects, as well as notions and ritual practice associated therewith, as well as their transformations in the early XXI century.
Izhemtsy, the tract of Crosses, Muzhi, votive cross, roadside cross.
Marital status with komi population from Yalutorovsk district Tobolsk region in XIX — early XX century
The article is devoted to studying of marital status with Komi migrants on the territory of Yalutorovsk District Tobolsk Region in XIX — early XX century. Basing on analysis of church parish registers from Yalutorovsk District Tobolsk Region, subject to consideration being such questions as time and age of the first marriage, prevalence of remarriages, and divorce.
Êîmi (Zyrians), marital status, Yalutorovsk District, Tobolsk Region.
Modern socio-demographic and ethno-cultural processes with Tobol and Irtysh Tartars
Basing on analysis of field materials, it is detected that modern socio-demographic processes with Tobol and Irtysh Tartars from Tyumen and Isetsk Districts of Tyumen Region operate differently. A relatively developed industrial infrastructure in the localities of Tyumen District can keep the outflow of working-age population into the regional centre, while in Isetsk District the population is mainly occupied at private homestead farms on which background one could observe fertility decline with the Tartar population. In ethno-cultural respect, the Siberian Tartars inhabiting these Districts are actively absorbing elements of the developing urban culture, while on the other hand, they are developing ethnic identity and preservation of ethno-cultural specificity.
Òîbol and Irtysh Tartars, Tyumen Region, demography, urbanization, employment, identity, reli-giousness, traditions.
Struggle of the Soviet power with religious consciousness of the Transural population in the 1920s
Basing on documentary sources, subject to analysis being struggle of the Soviet power with religious consciousness with the Transural population in the 1920s. The article considers a process of imposing new revolutionary rituals, as well as methods and forms of struggle with religious festivals and rituals.
Religious consciousness, scientific and atheistic worldview, clergy, atheistic propaganda, Soviet revolutionary festival, «Soviet rituals».
History of studies regarding city superstitions in the second half of XIX — early XXI century
The present article considers history of studies regarding city superstitious notions in anthropology, ethnography, and other related humanities since XIX century. Subject to identification being basic directions in the investigation of magic and superstitious notions in traditional and city communities, such as anthropological-and-psychological direction (studying of primitive mentality), folklore direction (studying of city legends and demonology) and urban direction (studying of city and city environment), as well as integrated studying of city superstitions themselves.
City superstitions, city legends, places’ archetypes, modern magic, omens, irrational notions, primitive mentality.
Ganopolsky M.G., Fedorov R.Yu.
On the way to oil and gas civilization (the experience of historical and geographic reconstruction)
Formation of Tyumen Region as an object of oil and gas civilization is presented not only as a result of new industrial development, but also as an outcome of preceding civilization waves, namely, salt extraction, production of furs, and mining industry. The basis of the suggested approach being a retrospective analysis of organizational and industrial forms of colonization and corresponding settlement structures, making a civilization landscape.
Development of the Urals and Siberia, salt extraction, production of furs, mining civilization, colonization routes, settlement reference frame, civilization landscape.
Êîzlova Ì.À., Êîzlov À.I., Shilov À.B.
Egalitarianism and stratification in communities of native Northern peoples
A traditional lifestyle with native Northern peoples is based on a relative social and age parity. Subject to consideration being reasons and specificity of social stratification with Russian Northern peoples. The article shows differences between processes in cities and settlements, as well as with people occupied in traditional and «modern» activities. In schools children come across harsh stratification contrasting their traditional lifestyle. Stratification of indigenous communities is regarded as a stressor due to modernization changes.
Northern indigenous peoples, social hierarchy, economic stratification, traditional society, modernized society, traditional education science.