BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 1 (16) (2012)
Demkin V.A., Klepikov V.M., Udaltsov S.N., Yeltsov M.V.
New aspects of natural scientific investigations regarding mounds of dry steppes in the Lower Volga basin
The authors undertook soil and archaeological investigations of the Peregruznoye mound burial ground in the north of Yergeninsky Hills 80 km south-west of Volgograd. For the first time, they obtained data on the structure of soil cover in the dry steppe zone of the Middle Sarmatian time (I c. B.C.). Basing on paleosoil data, it was established that in the second half of I century A.D. humid climatic conditions gradually changed into arid conditions, close to modern ones. Using methods and theoretical development works of archaeological soil science, the authors specified the age of the investigated sites, reconstructing technology and determining the season of construction of one of them, as well as obtaining principally new information on characteristics of a burial rite with the Middle Sarmatian tribes in the Lower Volga basin.
Archaeological soil science, paleosoils, natural scientific methods, steppe, climate, paleoecology, mound, Middle Sarmatian culture, burial rite, flies’ larvae, Mochika culture.
The indigenous minor ethnic groups in the Altai-Sayans region: traditional nature management and land relations from the standpoint of ethnic tolerance
The article considers questions of land relations in the areas of traditional nature management of the indigenous population in the Altai-Sayans region, demonstrating possible conflict situations arising in the interrelations between communities of the indigenous peoples practicing traditional forms of nature management, and other categories of land users, such as natural areas of preferential protection and enterprises of extractive industry. The author determines basic reasons of the land conflicts, disclosing mechanisms of aggravation of the ethnosocial situation. The article shows the influence of a growing level of the territorial proneness to a conflict upon the character of ethnic relations in the ethnonational enclaves of the region. It is noted that the main factor of the land conflicts being tendencies toward withdrawing certain lands of great survival and ethnocultural importance from a traditional economic circulation of the indigenous population. Subject to a description being the experience gained in the Altai-Sayans region to reduce possible risks regarding the indigenous population under implementation of environmental and social-economic programs.
Peoples of Altai and Sayans, traditional nature management, ethnic relations and conflicts, applied ethnology, land relations, ethnosocial tension, ethnic tolerance.