BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (19) (2012)
Neolithic fortifications and their prototypes in taiga Low Ob basin and Trans Urals
The article outlines six expansion stages regarding fortified settlements of the Old World in VIII thous. B.C. — III c. A.D. It gives a general description of ten Neolithic fortified settlements and their prototypes of VI–IV thous. B.C., which were discovered in West Siberian and Trans Ural taiga, considering reasons of their formation. The Neolithic forest fortifications of 260–1900 ì2 in area are located on capes, edges of terraces, in the shore recess, protected by palisades, log walls, and ditches. Those were built and probably invented by primitive groups of taiga fishermen and hunters. The main reason of their origin seems to be an allotment and assignment of relatively free game territories due to an influx of new population from the south during a period of climatic optimum, and a severe competition among the communities.
West Siberia, Trans Urals, Neolithic Age, fortified settlement.
Periods of transformations in the history of ancient societies from Tobol-and-Ishim basin in the Holocene
The paper considers some aspects of main «chronological» transition periods: from the Mesolithic to Neolithic Age, and from the Bronze to Early Iron Age, as well as a transition from an appropriating economy to a productive one, in particular, to cattle breeding in the forest Tobol-and-Ishim basin. What happened during these periods was a climatic and landscape modification, provoking in the case of aridization, migration streams of the population to the north and east directions, while in the case of humidization — to the south and west. In the transition time, alongside with migration of the population there were new technologies — pottery industry, metallurgy and metalworking, cattle breeding and early stages of farming — that were brought from the economically deve-loped territories into West Siberian areas. In its turn, migrations of the northern population into humid climatic phases brought back an appropriating economy and technologies of stone industry forgotten in the forest steppe, while in the social sphere it was accompanied by strengthening of tribal relations. Due to assimilation processes certain changes took place in the material culture within quite a short period of time, which manifested in a quick change of cultural development stages during those periods.
Transition period, migration, neolitization, pottery industry, cattle breeding, metallurgy, metalwor-king, assimilation
The first Konda metal
The article considers metal articles obtained from early and late settlements of the Polymjat type in the basin of the taiga Konda river. Together with a technological pottery, they reflect the initial stage of the Bronze Age in the North of West Siberia, marking the development of a local metal working centre in the area lacking its own crude ore. Morphological features of the articles and composition of the admixtures make it possible to outline the origin and possible routes of the metal entrance into the north of the denoted region, às well as to trace direct and indirect relations of the Konda population with its neighbours in the pre-Seyima time. A stratigraphy and a look of the pottery and accompanying inventory, 14Ñ datings, and remnants of metal working regarding the early and late Polymjat Konda sites allow to identify their chronological position in a typological and chronological scheme of the Eneolithic — the Late Bronze Age of the Konda. The elaborated scale does not accord with a concept of ST (Seyima-Turbino) migrations to the north of the region, excluding a role of the ST populations as a cultural carrier in development of the local metal industry.
Basin of the Konda river, early and late settlements of the Polymjat type, bronze, copper, tin, arsenic, silver, knife, the moon-like pendant, pricker, the Garino and Bor settlements, the Odino and Krokhalyovka pottery, pottery of the Varpaul type, the Abashevo culture and community, the Sintashta culture, the Petrovka culture, the Seyima-Turbino metal, the Galich treasure.
Yenshin D.N., Skochina S.N., Zakh V.A.
On settling rites in the Neolithic of the Low Ishim basin (basing on materials of Mergen 6 settlement)
The paper considers indications of house building rites existing in the culture of the Neolithic population from the Low Ishim basin. Basing on materials of Mergen 6 settlement, associated with its erection and functioning, subject to identification being a great number of facts which could be treated as confirmation of the existing rituals accompanying preparation of a place for a new dwelling, building of a house, and use of dwellings.
Low Ishim basin, settlement, Mergen 6, village, dwelling, ritual, rite, burial, building sacrifice.
The Seyima-Turbino antiquities and Indo-Aryans
An expansion phenomenon regarding articles and technologies of the Seyima-Turbino metal industry of the Bronze Age in North Eurasia is correlated with divergence and migrations concerning native speakers of Indo-Aryan dialects. Subject to consideration being a result of sociocultural, interethnic and linguistic cooperation among big ethnocultural units on the territory of the Volga and Kama basin and North-West Asia at the end of III thous. — early centuries of II thous. B.C. The author argues in favour of the common nature between cultural and historical sources regarding images of Videvdat Vara and Rigveda «autumn fortresses», tracing back to fortified constructions of the Arkaim-and-Sintashta type. Subject to justification being predominance of the Indo-Aryan substrate within the Seyima-Turbino communities who mainly contacted and confronted with the Iranian-speaking population of the Arkaim-and-Sintashta cultural unit, as well as with its Finnish-Ugrian environment.
Seyima-Turbino, Indo-Aryans, Vara, Rigveda, «autumn fortresses», Arkaim-and-Sintashta, puru.
Êîstomarov V.Ì., Êîstomarova Yu.V.
On selecting transition forms in the materials of Late Bronze Age on the territory of the Tobol-and-Ishim basin
The article considers basic elements of material culture regarding the Andronovo and Andronoid cultures of the Tobol-and-Ishim basin. Basing on a comparative analysis, the authors select syncretical transition forms reflecting transformation of some traditions into different ones.
Bronze Age, the Tobol-and-Ishim basin, transition forms, the Andronovo cultures, the Andronoid antiquities, pottery complex, economy, house building.
Vinogradov N.B., Chuprunova N.A.
An occasional finding of a stone planch with anthropomorphic images at the Sinara lake in Chyelyabinsk Oblast
Subject to introduction into a scientific circulation being a stone planch made of talcum peach, found in a layer of the Early Iron Age fortified settlement of Sinara I. On four sides of the planch there are engravings of five images of an anthropomorphic creature, in three cases with a sign of machismo. These images represent a materialized part of a certain ritual periodically repeated, which part was an appearance of an image belonging to one and the same male character — as a spirit, an ancestor, and a shaman.
South Trans Urals, ancient art, anthropomorphic images, ritual, Early Iron Age, fortified settlement of Sinara I.
Rafikova Ò.N., Chikunova I.Yu.
Economy of a medieval population of the forest steppe and sub-taiga Trans Urals
The paper describes an economic activity regarding a population of the Bakal and Yudino cultures from the forest steppe and sub-taiga Trans Urals. The analysis of osteological collections and inventory from medieval sites indicates that a leading economic branch for the Bakal population from the forest steppe Trans Urals was a mobile cattle breeding with a subsidiary role of hunting, fishing, and gathering. The Yudino population mainly inhabiting the sub-taiga zone led a complex economy combining hunting, cattle breeding, gathering, and homecraft industries.
Forest steppe and sub-taiga Trans Urals, the Bakal and Yudino cultures, economic-and-cultural type, mobile cattle breeding, complex economy.