BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 2  (1999)

Summary

Anthropology

Bagashev A. N.

Craniological Type of the Pelyim Mansi

The author analyses a craniological set collected by him in the neighbourhood of the former Lyamyapaul village located in the Ivdel district of Sverdlovsk oblast. Following ethno-historical and linguistic data, the skulls from Lyamyapaul correspond to the Pelyim sub-group of the West Mansi. Their study showed that in the anthropological mposition of the West Mansi a Eurasian component in two variations is present. A component within a womens group is genetically related with the Finno-Perm peoples of East Europe; a component within a mens group has a different origin and is analogous to craniological materials characterizing a racial type of the population inhabiting the forest-steppe belts of West Siberia in the Early Iron Age. Systematically, the West Mansi represent a Ugrian variation of the Urals anthropological type of West Siberian race.

 

Ryikun M. P.

Materials on Craniology of the North Altaj Population in the Early Iron Age (the Kamenka Culture)

38 mens and 16 womens skulls obtained from the burials of Maslyakha 1 and 2 (Krutikha district, Altaj kraj) burial grounds have been investigated. The latter have been referred to the Kamenka archaeological culture and dated to the 3rd1st centuries .. nalysis of the craniological materials showed that in the said chronological period the territory of North Altaj was inhabited by the Eurasian population in which a Mongoloid admixture could be traced. The Eurasian stratum is related to the proto-European type to be present in the Andronovo population of the Bronze Age. The ngoloid admixture is heterogenous: one of its parts is of the Central Asian origin while the other is of the forest West Siberian origin. Following ethnogenetic relations, one can trace relationship of the Kamenka culture population with the Saks as well as with bearers of the Sargatka culture and Savromatae-Sarmatian groups.

 

Matveeva N. P.

Materials on Paleo-Demographics of the Sargatka Culture

The author publishes paleo-demographic calculations on the data of burial grounds belonging to Sargatka culture of the forest-steppe zone of West Siberia (the Early Iron Age). She uses materials on 43 necropolis and 705 individuals grouped into two chronological stages: 5th3rd centuries B.C. 2nd century B.C. 4th5th centuries A.D. Expected life-duration for individuals reached a grown-up age is 16,5 years. Masculinization index equals to 1,31,4. An average mortal age for grown-ups in the earlier chronological stage is, for men, 36 years of age, in the later chronological stage 36,5 years of age; for women, respectively, 32,9 and 34,5 years of age. As quite probable are patriarchal relations with survivals of a group marriage (without polygenism) and more comfortable social life conditions for men. Due to absence of mortal peaks in adolescent and young age for women, one can assume lack of practice of early marriages and childbirths. Beginning of a reproductive period refers to 1617 years of age. Womens mortality during a reproductive period (1735 years of age) is generally not higher than that of mens which points out to a high share of mens deaths from mutilations and wounds conditioned by cattlebreeding way of life and permanent wars. Paleonthological observations point out to high physical loads on joints and spine among the people of the Sargatka culture starting from the adolescent age which is connected with horse-riding as well as regular stresses and malnutrition among the representatives of all age and social groups.