BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (23) (2013)
Time history of settling on the territory of forest Tobol-and-Ishim basin in Holocene
The article considers time history with regard to settling of ancient communities on the territory of the Low Tobol-and-Ishim basin in the Neolithic — Early Iron Age. Basing on a number of hillforts, settlements and dwel-lings therein, as well as on average number of people residing in one dwelling, subject to determination being most populated territories and the approximate number of population in certain periods. The population density on the territory of the interfluve was not high, depending, first of all, on climatic changes, migration processes, and forms of economy.
Tobol-and-Ishim basin, Atlantic, subboreal, Holocene, settlement, number, settling, population density.
Kuzminykh S.V., Degtyareva A.D., Denisov V.P.
Metal working of the Garino culture from the Upper and Middle Kama basin (on the evidence of analytical study)
The available analytical materials testify to operation of a metallurgical hearth on the territory of the Upper and Middle Kama basin — a comparatively minor, compared with industrial centres of the Circumpontic metallurgical province, but, at the same time, quite an advanced and big one, compared with hearths and metal working centres of the Eneolithic cultures from forest belt of North Eurasia. The industrial operation of the Garino metallurgical hearth was based on mining of the local coppery sandstones, with smelting and melting of oxidized copper and, in a small way, of virgin copper. A sufficient knowledge on properties and defects of oxidized copper, together with an ability to smelt it from the ore, working it under pre-melting temperatures, testify to a high skill of blacksmiths and foundry men of the Garino hearth.
Åarly Metal Age, the Garino archaeological culture, Kama basin, metal analysis, metal working, me-tallurgical hearth.
Complex of the Sintashta pottery from the fortified settlement of Kamenny Ambar: a typological analyisis
The article presents investigation results on the Sintashta pottery collection from the fortified settlement of Kamenny Ambar. The author considers morphological and ornamental features of the vessels, suggesting their inner typology. The analysis of spatial distribution of the findings showed that each typological group occupied a certain planigraphic position in the settlement layer, to all appearances, representing an individual functional category.
South Urals, Bronze Age, the Sintashta culture, pottery.
Economic and industrial activity of the Fyodorovo population from the Low Tobol basin (basing on comprehensive analysis of the implements)
The article considers basic elements of economy with the Fyodorovo culture groups inhabiting the forest and forest-steppe Low Tobol basin. Aiming at reconstruction, the author used the outcome of trace evidence investigation of the implements, which allowed not only to specify the available notions on the main branches of the economy, but also to supplement those with new data.
Òhe Fyodorovo culture, implements, trace evidence analysis, economy, industrial activity.
Rafikova T.N., Berlina S.V., Kajdalov A.I., Sechko Ye.A.
Fortifications of the early and developed Middle Ages in the forest-steppe and sub-taiga Trans Urals
The paper describes fortification structures of the early and developed Middle Ages with special emphasis to most studied fortifications of the Bakal culture. It is concluded that the medieval fortified settlements from the fo-rest-steppe zone, irrespective of their cultural identity, are distinguished by a big area and strength of their defense constructions, compared with those from the sub-taiga belt. Considering evolution of defense art of building, starting with early Iron Age, it was concluded on the establishment of certain standards in the building of fortifications by the Middle Ages.
Òhe Middle Ages, the Bakal culture, fortification structures, development and evolution of defense art of building.
Ornamental traditions of Ural-West Siberian region (an experience of experimental modeling)
Ornamental traditions stay the foundation for reconstruction of ethnocultural processes in the Neolithic of the Urals and West Siberia. However, methods of combining pottery within the limits of a certain tradition remains undeveloped, bringing researchers to mutually exclusive conclusions. The article considers a notion of «ornamental tradition», briefly describing basic decorating implements used for ornamentation of the Neolithic pottery.
Ornamentation, ornamenting stamps, ornamental tradition, experimental modeling, pottery trace evidence, Neolithic of the Urals and West Siberia.