BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (23) (2013)
Buzhilova A.P., Batsevich V.A., Berdiyeva A.Yu., Zorina D.Yu., Yasina O.V.
Rating of interrelation between morphological features and concentration of microelements with modern representatives of the Arctic adaptive type
The paper presents rating of interrelation between concentration of certain microelements in the hair and morphological features with representatives of two groups of the Arctic adaptive type, examined on the territory of the Chukotka Peninsula. The analysis of grade correlations showed that statistically reliable distinctions between the populations of the Chukchi and Eskimos being mainly fixed in the male sample groups, while in the female groups one finds similarity between their morphological and microelement status. The tendencies discovered in the male groups could be considered as a probable reflection of the distinctions in nutrition of Eskimos and the Chukchi, with a bigger share of seafood in the diet of the former. Lack of correlations with females from different ethnic groups could be explained by decreasing of the intergroup distinctions against stronger sex dimorphism. The biggest number of statistically reliable correlations was obtained between morphological features and concentration levels of such microelements as zinc, chrome, iron, mercury and manganese. They discovered positive correlation in the interrelation between levels of zinc, chrome, manganese in the hair and values of certain lengthwise, wrapping and cross-cut body measurements, which to some extent makes it possible to explain reducing variability of the total measurements in the Arctic groups due to specific level of delivery of these microelements from the environment. In particular, it concerns decreased concentrations of zinc. Analyzing statistical relations with development indicators of body fat one finds two differently directed tendencies: positive interrelation between measurements of fat rolls and concentrations of mercury; and negative correlations between fat measurements on extremities and level of iron. The results of this investigation attest to a possibility of using the discovered correlations as the estimation of the impact level of geochemical environmental factors on a human body, which is particularly urgent under analysis of adaptive potential of a population in the extreme environment.
Anthropoecology, body morphology, trace elements in the hair, Eskimos, the Chukchi, Arctic adaptive type, geochemical human ecology.
Paleopathology: from the experience of foreign and domestic studies to the history of studying ancient people in the Low Volga basin
The paper represents a historiographic review of development stages in paleopathology as an academic direction in modern anthropology both in the foreign and domestic science. Special emphasis is made on the history of studying paleoanthropological antiquities, using methods of paleopathological analysis of the bone remains on the territory of the Low Volga basin. The paper also describes achievements of the modern national paleopathological school and its regional branches in the south of Russia.
Paleopathology, history, Low Volga basin, diseases, ancient people, anthropology.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Devedjan S.G., Yeganyan L.G.
Methods of treating dead bodies at the sites of Shirakavan and Lory Berd (Armenia) (after paleoanthropological data)
Subject to examination being several methods of treating buried remains of the Iron Age on the territory of the Armenian upland, such as: body dissection, cremation, damage of a facial skeleton, scalping, burial of only the right half of a cranium and fragments of postcranial skeleton, craniotomy. Also, the local population was not alien for human sacrifice. Special treatment of the head of a deceased person stays a special feature of burial traditions with many ancient peoples. The fact that it was the head that was subject to special «treatment», testifies to a special role of this body part in ideological notions of the population from the Armenian upland. The bones bear traces of pits, scratching and defects of the jointing surfaces. These destructions resulted from animal activity, with total or partial eating of soft tissues. The representatives of the Iron Age culture were notable for such criteria as low indexes of odontogenic osteomyelitis, lifetime loss of teeth, dental injuries and moderate frequencies of cribra orbitalia. The obtained data testify to the fact that the food of the population, apart from meat and dairy products, included cereals. Subject to examination being a case of unintentional artificial impact upon the upper first premolar. The economic activity assuming use of teeth as a support tool (processing leather articles, making various ropes, etc.) was a specific feature of the population.
Armenian upland, Iron Age, dissection of dead bodies, cremation, sacrifice, scalping, pathologies.