BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (27) (2014)
Slepchenko S.M., Poshekhonova O.Ye.
Pathological manifestations in the paleoanthropological material of early Middle Ages from the burial place of Ustyug-1
The article presents the outcome of a paleoanthropological investigation of osteological material from the early medieval burial place of Ustyug-1 of IV–VI cc. A.D. It is determined that health state of the people buried in that place was quite satisfactory, as evidenced by a small number of revealed pathologies. Lack of bone inflammations, with the only case of the minor manifestation of cribra orbitalia, points to acceptable sanitary conditions of that dwelling place and pretty high body resistance, which is difficult to ensure without proper meal, etc. Workloads for males did not exceed physiological ones, while for females they recorded both minor and major ones, which might point to their different social status. Subject to observation being similarity in the extent and type of physical loads with the Sargatka group of early Middle Ages, which did not exceed threshold values and oftener fell on upper limbs. A tradition of changing head shape with that population group might be due to high frequency of intracranial hypertension and craniosynostosis with babies. The availability of traumas of axial skeleton and cranial vault might point to tense intertribal situation abounded with conflicts. At the same time, almost total absence of traumas in the facial part might point to favourable intragroup relations.
West Siberia, early Middle Ages, paleopopulation, paleopathology, health state, physical activity.
On decapitation in Dvin: anthropological examination of medieval crania from Armenia
The paper undertakes life and death reconstruction of three individuals. On the skulls, they observed crippling of cranial bones due to traumatic consequences. All the three investigated persons were found with infectious diseases (lepra, periostitis, antritis). The social stratum they belonged to suffered a shortage of necessary food. People with physical defects and infectious diseases were regarded by the society as defective creatures, thus, not deserving attention.
Armenia, Dvin, Middle Ages, decapitation, traumas, infectious diseases.
Dermatoglyphics with Kazan’ Tartars
The article presents basic results of a dermatoglyphic investigation with Kazan’ Tartars. The investigation uses data on prints of both hands for 1310 persons (928 males and 382 females). Subject to determination being greater heterogeneity of the female samples compared with the male ones. The paper selected basic dermatoglyphic variants. For the first time the author makes an attempt of diachronic analysis of dermatoglyphic data.
Kazan’ Tartars, ethnic dermatoglyphics, peoples of the Volga basin, ethnic history.