BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (27) (2014)
Golovnyov A.V., Abramov I.V.
Reindeer and gas: development strategies of Yamal
The Yamal peninsula has become a place of meeting and competition of at first sight incompatible technologies of reindeer breeding and gas-extraction. This is expressed in crossing of two longest peninsula roads: a traditional nomadic way of the Nenets from Khaen to Yamal part, and a railway from «mainland» to Bovanenkovo gas condensate field. The industry keeps changing Yamal’s look in accordance with a new design of the environmental management and communications, while the Nenetz reindeer breeders tend to preserve a traditional rhythm of migrations and using pastures. Yamal experiences the competition of two different development strategies which conductors being traditional and technological societies. The both parts are incresing pressure upon tundra, thus undermining ecological stability in the region. It is not separate gas fields and projects that need ecological examination, but the whole Yamal as an integrated ecosociosystem into which a nomadic life of the reindeer breeders is inserted. The Nenets big herded reindeer breeding stays impossible without preserving the common space of trans-Yamal routes. Under such conditions, the ethnological examination becomes a method minimizing consequences of cultural collision and conflict competition.
Yamal peninsula, reindeer breeding, Nenets, nomads, migrations, ecological examination, anthropogenic impact, ecosociosystem.
Transformations of ethnic environmental management in the reindeer breeding of the early XÕ c. (by the example of North-Even District, Magadan Oblast’)
In the early XX c., ethnic transformations among North East reindeer breeders were mainly conditioned by inter-ethnic contacts under which influence the life style of the indigenous people suffered certain changes, i.e. adapted to re-created ethnocultural conditions. However, in the process of adaptation different ethnic groups displayed considerable differences, resulting in the origin of new ethno-local groups.
Traditional environmental management, the Koryaks, the Evens, paleo-Asian method of reindeer breeding, Tungus type of reindeer breeding
Textile attributes of a bear festival at holy places of North Mansi in the early XXI c.
The article systematizes textile attributes of a bear festival discovered under expedition investigations at holy places of North Mansi. The author gives a description of headwear, robes and mittens, considering methods of wearing shawls, and details of mittens’ ornamentation. It is indicated that all the obtained objects were found in home sanctuaries. It is determined that it was headwear quantitatively prevailing among the attributes, which testifies to significance of the function those performed in the Mansi sacral ritual practice.
Mansi, Mansi traditional clothing, bear festival, traditional textile, ritual robe, ritual fur-cap, ritual mittens, ritual methods of tying shawls.
Fishing traditions with Komi from the Low Tobol basin
The article considers fishing traditions with Komi residing on the territory of the Low Tobol basin. It is observed that fishing was of a subsidiary significance, with catches mainly used for family self-provision. Following the materials of field investigations, the author shows fishing seasonal distinctions, fishing methods, fishing gear, as well as their development trends. Subject to description being modern features of using fish production, its processing and preparation.
Fishing, Komi, Low Tobol basin, fishing traps, fish production.
Death rate processes with the Komi-Zyryan adult population from Ivanovo Volost’, Yalutorovsk Uyezd in the late XIX – early XX c.
Basing upon data of parish registers, subject to analysis being age groups of the deceased, dynamics of death rate in different life periods, and common causes of death with the Komi-Zyryan adult population from Ivanovo Volost’, Yalutorovsk Uyezd, Tobolsk Province in the late XIX — early XX c.
Komi-Zyryans, death rate, Yalutorovsk Uyezd, Ivanovo Volost’, Tobolsk Province.
Klueva V.P., Poplavsky R.O.
Changes of a Protestant landscape of the (post) Soviet province: international relations of the Tyumen churches in the late 80th — the beginning of the 90th of the XX c.
The article is devoted to analysis of religious situation in Protestant community of the Tyumen region since the end of the 1980th to the middle of the 1990th. The attention to the international participation in emergence new and maintenance of already existing communities, including believers from the different countries, including the former Soviet republics is paid. The authors determine some areas of work: humanitarian aid, distribution of religious literature, help in receiving religious education, evangelical activity and creation of churches.
Protestantism, missionaries, international relations, religious community, religious education, Tyumen region.