BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 1 (28) (2015)
«Ground landmarks» and «road landmarks»: earth-based natural and artificial objects in the system of spatial orientation with the tundra Nenets
The paper presents a set of earth-based natural and artificial landmarks used by the Nenets, together with practice of their learning and use. Subject to consideration being a double-level landscape knowledge among the tundra Nenets, suggested by K.V. Istomin and M.J. Dwyer, where the upper level allows moving easily across the territory, while the lower one contains a detailed landscape knowledge necessary for reindeer breeding. The author draws a conclusion that for the tundra Nenets rivers and hills stayed the top priority and universal natural landmarks.
Spatial orientation, tundra Nenets, north landscapes, conventional signs, roads.
Agapov M.G., Korandej F.S.
Map of Tyumen Oblast as a symbol: geographical toposes in the popular cartography of the region, 1964–2014
The article investigates a conventionalized cartographical picture of Tyumen Oblast. Throughout several decades this symbol has been actively used in various contexts, including administrative practices, advertisement, mass-media, urban and country landscape. The article aims at the interpretation of the data array, including over one hundred and fifty conventionalized pictures of the map of Tyumen Oblast used as painted slogans, logotypes and emblems since 1960s up today. The logic of production and use of iconic maps in mass culture is described using a concept of the popular and geographical topos. The sustainable models followed by the pictures included into the investigated data array represent a response of mass culture to urgent problems of the regional character. The data array collected by the author reflects the history of these challenges from view point of the anonymous authors, using sustainable models for creation of geographical symbols, aiming at demonstrating a certain type of the regional identity.
Popular geographical topos, map of Tyumen Oblast, regional identity.
«Who are we and where is our Heimat?»: ethnical identity of the Russian Germans at the turn of XX–XXI cc. (according to materials from Chelyabinskaya Oblast’)
The article is devoted to ethnical identity of the Russian Germans according to materials from Chelyabinskaya Oblast’ during the post-Soviet period. Basing on the regional periodicals, archival data, verbal stories and depth interviews, subject to proposal and description being models of ethnical identity of the Russian Germans, such as assimilation, symbiosis, migration. Besides, the author describes the activity of German cultural and education centres, quoting statistics of the external migration processes with the involvement of the Germans from this region.
Åthnical identity, Russian Germans, Germans at the Urals, Chelyabinskaya Oblast’.
Customs and rites connected with birth of a child among Siberian Tartars from the south of Tyumen Oblast
Basing on field ethnographic materials, subject to reconstruction being traditional maternity rites with Siberian Tartars from the south of Tyumen Oblast’. The author describes customs and rites connected with a female antepartum and postpartum period, as well as with birth of a child and his early life period, quoting proverbs and sayings reflecting the attitude of Siberian Tartars to children.
Maternity rites, Siberia Tartars, pregnancy, midwife, delivery, purification, socialization, visiting a new mother, name, circumcision.
Pre-Islamic elements in the burial rites with Kazakhs from Pavlodar low Irtysh basin
The article considers pre-Islamic elements in the burial rites with Kazakhs from Pavlodar low Irtysh basin. Basic sources are presented by archaeological and ethnographic data. The pre-Islamic elements include as follows: alastau rite (purification with fire), the availability of animal bones and everyday articles in grave holes, the erection of stone sculptures, suyeke tusu (the rite of body washing), fidiya rite (making satisfactions for sins of the departed), zhoktau (mourning).
Kazakhs, Pavlodar low Irtysh basin, burial rite, pre-Islamic elements and beliefs, Islam.
Borodovsky A.P., Baulo A.V.
On technology of making lead ritual attributes with Ob’ Ugrians
The investigation of quite a representative collection of lead ritual castings allowed to reconstruct the particulars of their making in the single-wing and double-wing molds, discovering texture traces of wooden molds on their surface. A comparative approach in the surface description of the lead ritual castings, together with results of their experimental simulation, offers new possibilities in the investigation of these traditional and exclusive objects of ritual casting from West Siberia.
Ritual casting, lead, West Siberia, ethnographic collections, experimental simulation.
Gravestones with Yakuts from Central Yakutia in the late XIX — early XX c.
Basing on materials of gravestones with Yakuts and Russian peasants from central areas of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in the late XIX — early XX c., the article undertakes a comparative analysis regarding complexes of symbolic images, tracing the dynamics of these complexes depending on the territory and time of erecting the monuments. The appearance of stone gravestones with Yakuts stays a novation under the influence of a Christian tradition. The predominance of Christian symbols on the gravestones testifies to deep penetration of Christianity into the mentality of Yakuts from Central Yakutia by the end of XIX c.
Yakuts, gravestones, novations, Christianity.