BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 2 (29) (2015)
Zakh V.A., Ilyushina V.V., Tigeyeva Ye.V., Yen’shin D.N., Kostomarov V.M.
A closed Zhuravlevsky complex on the hillfort of Borki 1 in the Low Ishim basin
The paper considers a closed complex of the Zhuravlevsky culture on Borki hillfort, basing on materials obtained from pit No. 23, construction 2, with pottery and heavy accumulation of molds for casting daggers, plate knives with a tear-shaped hole in the handle for suspending, Celt-axes with two loops, and arrowheads. They made a technological analysis of the dishes and molds. Basing on analogues, subject to determination being relative chronology of the Zhuravlevsky materials and their place among complexes of transition time and early Iron Age.
Low Ishim basin, hillfort of Borki 1, pottery, bronze articles and molds.
A pottery complex from the settlement of Mergen’ 7 (Low Ishim basin): description and interpretation
The paper considers a basic Neolithic pottery complex from the settlement of Mergen’ 7 at the north-east shore of the Mergen’ lake. The author undertakes analysis of typological-and-morphological features and distinctions of the pottery. Subject to determination being its cultural belonging in the context of problems regarding the Kozlov-and-Poludenkovsky antiquities of Trans-Urals, presuming în position of the given complexes in the chronological scheme of the Neolithic from the Low Ishim basin.
The Neolithic Age, Trans-Urals, Low Ishim basin, Mergen’ 7, pottery, typological-and-morphological characteristic, cultural-and-chronological interpretation, the Kozlov-and-Poludenkovsky antiquities, the Kozlov culture.
Pottery of early Bronze Age from the settlement of Shidertinsky 2 and burial site of Shiderty 10
Basing on analysis of a pottery collection, the paper considers questions of cultural attribution as to sites of early Bronze Age in the Middle Shiderta river (Central Kazakhstan). Resulting from the undertaken classification and statistical treatment of the material, the author determined several cultural components constituting the Shidertinsky pottery type. Basing on radiocarbon dates and comparative-and-typological method, subject to identification being lifetime of the sites and their relationship with synchronous cultural entities.
North-East Sary-Arka, early Bronze Age, the Krotovo-and-Yelunino entity, pottery, ornament, migrations, cultural genesis.
Non-ferrous metal ingots of the Petrovka culture (composition and manufacturing)
Subject to consideration being shape, chemical composition and manufacturing conditions regarding ingots of the Petrovka culture from South Trans-Urals. It is proved that products of the Trans-Urals metallurgic hearth could include copper refined flat-and-convex ingots of an irregular shape, cast from oxidized and sulphide ore, as well as sickle-shaped articles, and some crucible ingots. Bar-shaped ingots and approximately half of the articles obtained in crucibles with introduced alloys of tin, lead were imported from hearths of Rudny Altai or Central Kazakhstan.
Bronze Age, South Trans-Urals, ingots, copper, bronze, metallurgic hearth.
On a migration system of kin entities in ancient times (after complexes of late Bronze — early Iron Age in West Siberia)
Studying of pottery ornamentation regarding several cultures of late Bronze Age — early Iron Age (the Bar-khatovo, Irmen’, Baitovo, Sargatka cultures) allowed to identify certain local groups of settlements within the area of each of them. In ornamentation of the pottery ware in each of the groups, with a general set of ornamentation elements typical for the whole cultural area, subject to identification being dominating elements. Thereby, it was proposed that such settlement grouping could reflect one of the systems of kin migration in traditional entities — locally, «down the rivers, part of their stream way, or down inflows».
West Siberia, late Bronze Age, early Iron Age, archaeological culture, settlement, pottery, ornamentation.
Zakh V.A., Rafikova T.N.
A bronze comb from Low Tobol basin
The article considers a bronze comb acquired by the Ishim museum of local lore, and originating, most probably, from a robbed mound in Kurgan Oblast’. As to more accurate data on the location of the article, those are not available. The comb is unilateral, cast in a bilateral mold, probably, with welded horse figurines and a human head. Here also there are pictures of lions facing each other. The middle and upper parts of the comb are divided by two palm branches diverging from head and braided with a ribbon, terminating with two volutes at the corners of the handle, probably representing a styled floral ornament, wave crests (?) or styled bird heads, while the middle part is separated from the teeth with a circular ornament. Using and combining different images with no single composition in one and the same article, but at the same time popular in different time throughout a huge territory of Eurasia, could point to the craftsman’s orientation to a broad circle of customers. It is difficult to precisely delineate a probable territory of the comb manufacturing. We suppose that those could be workshops of Byzantium or Middle Asia, with the most probable time being a period from the end of early Iron Age up to developed Middle Ages.
Low Tobol basin, bronze comb, horse figurines, human head, picture of lions, Greek influence, Byzantium, Middle Asia, end of early Iron Age, early and developed Middle Ages.
Earrings from Sara burial site in Orenburg Oblast’
The article is devoted to golden earrings shaped like an unclosed ring with a burned-on biconical ornamentation from Sara burial site in East Orenburzhye. Genetically, this type goes back to earrings in the shape of a ring with a conical cap, which earliest pictures were fixed on Assyrian stone reliefs, while the main range zone being Sayans-Altai, where they occur in burial sites of early Scythian time, and were depicted on deer stones. Single findings of such earrings are famous in Central Kazakhstan and Low Volga basin. In the South Urals they found derivatives of Sayans-Altai earrings dated by later time. A biconical shape of the ornamentation of the earrings from Sara finds its analogs in Tuva and North Caucasus. The author thinks that the pictures and findings of earrings of the said type testify to complicated processes occurring in steppes of Eurasia during early Iron Age.
Early nomads, Scythian age, golden earrings, South Urals, Sayans-Altai, North Caucasus, West Asia.
On a functional purpose regarding constructions of the Bronze Age from the territory of West Orenburzhye
The investigations devoted to problems of the Bronze Age give special consideration to a description of constructions. The constructions left by the population of the Bronze Age quite distinctly reflect many aspects of household and social activity of that society. This work considers complexes from six settlements with found constructions of the Bronze Age on the territory of West Orenburzhye. The author made an attempt to classify those according to their functional purpose.
West Orenburzhye, Bronze Age, srubnaja culture, constructions, functional purpose.