Mkrtchan R.A., Pestryakov A.P., Grigoryeva O.M.

Craniological characteristics of a cranium (cerebral cranium) from burial sites of the Bronze Age

The article is devoted to studying of cranium metric parameters, describing its absolute value and shape, regarding ancient Armenian cranioseries from burial sites of the middle and late Bronze Age: Lchashen and Getashen (together with scanty crania from burial sites of Verin and Nerkin). Besides, subject to consideration being their characteristics against broader diachronic and territorial background.

Craniology, craniotypes, Bronze Age, Armenian cranioseries, chronological variation.


Pererva Ye.V.

Radiologic investigation of deformed crania of the Golden Horde time from the territory of Low Volga basin (a paleopathological aspect)

The paper presents an attempt to study pathology of crania with unintended artificial deformation with representatives of the Golden Horde time, originating from sub-mound burial sites on the territory of the Low Volga basin. The analysis of the bone material was made using method of radiologic investigation in the coronal and lateral views. Totally, subject to investigation being 20 crania, with 16 ones of those with traces of artificial deformation, and 4 ones without traces of head modification. In the course of the investigation, they viewed crania shape, bone structure of cranial vault, state of cranial sutures, evidences of intracranial hypertension, symptoms of vascular abnormalities, and signs of endocrinopathy.

Low Volga basin, crania with artificial deformation, the Golden Horde period.


Khudaverdyan A.Yu.

Trephined crania from burial sites of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age from the territory of Armenia

Subject to discovery and description being cases of trepanations with representatives of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age from the territory of Armenia. Totally, subject to investigation being 130 crania from 6 burial sites. Eight of the identified perforations are located on parietal bones, and one each perforation — on temporal and occipital bones. The crania belong to 6 males and 1 female, with one cranium not identified on grounds of sex, as well as to 1 child (aged 8–10). The males’ age: from 18 up to 60, the female’s age: 2530. Symbolic trepanations cuts on occipital bones being identified with 15 individuals; while 3 individuals being fixed with surface abnormalities of the external bone compact, resembling «scraping». Besides, the investigated materials revealed two possible cases of posthumous trepanation.

Armenia, Bronze and Iron Ages, ritual, symbolic, medicinal trepanations, symbols.