BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY  3  (2001)

Summary

Archaeology

Laukhin S. A., Gnibedenko Z. N.

Paleomagnetic Investigations of the Cave Sediments of Gorny Altai Pleistocene

In the paper there are the descriptions of cave sediments sections in the entral hamber and in Front of the Cave Entrance. For the Front of the Cave Entrance section paleomagnetic investigations shown the normal polarity to the majority of the sediments which is typical to the Brunhes Epoch of normal magnitization. At the same time the horison of reverse polarity Blake containing the upper part of the Stratum 11, Stratum 10 and the lower part of the Stratum 9 was recorded in this section. On the base of the Blake Episode position, the corresponding deposits might be attributed to the Riss-Wurm. Also paleomagnetic investigations shown the normal polarity of the Central Chamber sediments (during Brunhes Epoch). The horisons of reverse polarity Byva I and Byva II containing the Stratum 7 of Pleistocene part of section were recorded in this section. These horisons are corresponding 176210 Ka and 266300 Ka or 185 Ka and 290 Ka according V. K. Shkatova [1998]. The paleomagnetic data of the sediments are in good concordance with the radiothermoluminescentic, radiocarbon, palinological etc. characteristics.

 

Stefanov V. I., Stefanova N. K.

On Relations Between the Population of Trans-Urals and  the Middle Irtysh Basin in the Pre-Andronovo Period

The authors deal with a question of relations between the population of the Middle Irtyish Basin and that of  Trans-Urals, basing on the ceramic complex from the Krotovo settlement Inberen 10 which contains an admixture of talcum in the test specimen. The Inberen vessels do not directly correspond to the materials of Trans-Urals monuments which belong to the Alakul and Koptyakovo cultures though in many respects they could be compared with the pottery of the Sintashta-Petrovka Complexes and  the Abashevo culture. Judging from few available heterocultural materials obtained from the monuments of the Krotovo culture, the contacts dating back to its early development stage seemed to be scarce, without mass character. During the late stage of the Krotovo culture they got considerably reinforced though they were already oriented into the Andronovo world of the Kazakhstan steppes.

 

Degtyareva A. D., Kuzminikh S. V., Orlovskaya L. B.

Metal Production of the Petrovka Tribes (based on the materials of the settlement Kulevchi 3)

The paper gives a description of the non-ferrous metal obtained from the Petrovka culture settlement Kulevchi 3 (Chelyabinsk oblast, Varnensky district), the second quarter of the second millennium B.C., in terms of its morphology, identification of chemical and metallurgical groups as well as definition of the technological flow charts with respect to production of the equipment. The authors have discovered certain features of development continuity between the Yamno-Poltavkino and Petrovka metal production, as well as the likeness of the metal obtained from the late Abashevo, Sintashta, Potapovo and Petrovka monuments.

 

Kotelnikova I. A.

On Genesis of the Fyodorovo and Cherkaskul Cultures (based on burial rite materials)

The author deals with a question of genesis of the Fyodorovo and Cherkaskul cultures basing on burial rite materials. In Southern Trans-Urals, the rites of the Fyodorovo monuments demonstrate a considerable similarity to those of the developed and late phases of the Cherkaskul culture. It makes us cautiously treat the ideas on dividing the Koptyakovo stem into the Cherkaskul and Fedorovo stems, or dividing the pre-Koptyakovo stem into the Koptyakovo, Cherkaskul and Fedorovo stems. Availability of the common elements in the burial rites could be explained by the intensive contacts which by the way had never led to assimilation of the Cherkaskul people by the Fyodorovo people.

Potemkina T. M.

Ornaments from the Burial Ground Dashti-kozyi

The article is devoted to classification and description of the bronze ornaments obtained from the burial ground Dashti-Kozyi on the Zeravshan river. This burial ground is one of the most investigated monuments of the steppe Bronze culture in the Zeravshan Valley. The author gives broad analogies to the considered types of the ornaments. Lack of arms, tools and animal bones in the burial complexes of the burial ground is explained by specific features of the economic and social development of the Andronovo tribes in the surroundings of the agricultural population of Middle Asia.

 

Potemkina T. M., Usmanova E. R.  

Reconstruction of a Costume from the Burial Ground Dashti-kozyi

Basing on the materials of one of the richest burials of the steppe Bronze obtained from the burial ground Dashti-Kozyi on the Zeravshan river, reconstruction of a female costume has been made. The latter includes a dress, a head-dress, a belt, footwear and jewellery. The manner of wearing ornaments as well as a bell-shaped ear-ring type discovered in the reconstructed costume, which is analogous to a steppe costume, indicate, together with a vessel, to the presence of close ties among heterocultural tribes.

Kungurov A. L., Papin D. V.

Materials of Final Bronze from the Archaeological Complex Maly Gonbinsky kordon 1

The authors publish the materials of final bronze obtained from the archaeological complex Gonbinsky Kordon 1. The complexes of burial ground 5 and settlement 3 are introduced into research circulation. The former is represented by the Irmen culture, while the latter reflects the initial evolutionary stage of the Bolsherechensky culture dated to the period transitional from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age.

 

Myilnikova L. I., Chemyakina M. A.

The late Bronze Ceramics of Central Baraba (based on the materials of the settlement complex Om 1)

The authors have attempted a comprehensive analysis of the Late Bronze ceramics obtained from the multi-layer settlement complex Om 1. The closest analogies as to shaping and ornamentation of the studied pottery could be traced in the ceramic complexes of the Barabinsky monuments of the Late Bronze Age including Novochekino 1, Turunovka 4 (the first ceramic type), as well as Preobrazhenka 3.

 

Matveeva N. P.

Mound Burial Ground Staro-Lybaevo 4 (based on the diggins of 1999)

The author publishes the materials obtained from the diggings of the Early Iron Age necropolis Staro-Lyibaevo 4 situated in the forest-steppe Trans-Urals. Single and common burials are located in the mounds dia. 1216 m encircled by a rounded or polygonal closed ditch. The planigraphy of the graves: circular around one centre, the position of the deceased: stretched on the back with their heads oriented to the North, North West, and North East. By the graves and in the ditches, one can observe traces of funeral feasts and repast. Judging from characteristic features of the burial rite and accessories, the burial ground could be dated between the IIII cc. A.D., and attributed to the Sargatka culture of West Siberian forest-steppe.

 

Mogilnikov V. A.

Bronze Castings from the Fortified Settlement Stary Pogost

In the article, the author outlines the complexes discovered under diggings of the fortified settlement Stary Pogost executed by the author in 1986. Particular attention was given to analysis of bronze masks (VII-VI-Vcc. B. C.) which are culturally associated with the population of the Lower Ob-Irtyish basin and the forest Trans-Urals, with the cultures of the late-Lozvinsky and Vagilsky types. Generally, the masks are original, cast in one-sided moulds made of clay. Availability of poor castings, in all probability, indicates to casting made at the site where, perhaps, there was a cultic place which might have been deserted before the population of the Sargatka culture emerged on the outlier. Presumably, certain fragments of ceramics ornamented by rolling and drawn geometrical designs close to the ornament of the late-Lozvinsky and Vagilsky pottery, originated in casting.

 

Borisenko A.Yu., Khudyakov Yu. S.

Findings of Artworks in Animal Style from N. K. Vitzen's Collection

The authors consider artworks in animal style from N. K. Vitzens collection. The analysis of the findings testifies to their origin from different cultural complexes of the Scythian and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods. Territorially, the majority of the findings is associated with the Irtyish basin and the steppe Altai, as well as with North and Central Kazakhstan. It can't be excluded that some artefacts analogous to the materials obtained from the Middle Asia, Iran and the North Black Sea basin might be received by N. K. Vitzens correspondents not only from Siberia but also from the other regions.

 

Volkov E. N., Vedernikov P. A.

Materials to the Aechaeological map of the Ingalsky Valley

The paper is devoted to the description of the new archaeological monuments discoverd on the territory of the archaeological complex Ingalsky Valley. The materials on the settlements covering a time range from the Neolithic to the Mediaeval periods, are introduced into research circulation. Of particular importance are the materials on the Eneolithic settlement Imbiryaj 1 illustrating a transformation possibility of the cultural traditions of the Eneolithic time into the culture of the Early Bronze Age. The available series of the recently discovered Cherkaskul and Pakhomovo cultures, fill in a time gap related with the problem of opening up the area of the Ingalsky Valley at the end of the Middle Bronze Age the beginning of the Late Bronze Age.

 

Zakh V. A., Zimina O. Yu.. . , . .

Monuments of the Transitional Period and the Early Iron Age from the Lower Tobol Basin (Yurtoborovsk neighbourhood locality)

The authors consider the materials of the monuments dated to the transitional period and the Early Iron Age in the Lower Tobol basin located on a rather limited territory in the Yurtoborovsk neighbourhood locality. The available complexes enable us to trace the process of ousting the culture of the population represented by the Gamayun-Itkoul (Karagaj-Aul) culture bearers by the culture of the forest Baitovo people. A cultural layer and household constructions of some monuments contain the materials of the Baitovo, Sargatka and Gorokhovo cultures.

 

Potemkina T. M., Chikunova I. Yu.

The Early Iron Age Settlement Bely Yar XII

The paper is devoted to the archaeological monument discovered and partially studied about 35 years ago. In the course of investigation of one of the sinkholes in the settlement Bely Yar XII (Kurgan oblast, Belozersky district), the authors came to a conclusion of its heterochronic character: the stratigraphic data as well as the material remnants bear traces of the two existential periods: the Late New Stone Age and the Early Iron Age (the initial stage of the Sargatka culture).

 

Kolontsov S. V., Vorobyev A. A.

Materials on the Ust-Tartas Outpost

The article gives a description of the materials collected by different authors from 1976 to 1989 on the ruinating Russian Ust-Tartas outpost founded at the beginning of the XVIIIth century on the Tartas river. Basing on the analysis of the available ceramics, the authors come to a conclusion of certain similarities existing between the ceramic craftwork of the Ust-Tartas outpost and that of the other Russian stockaded towns (like Mangazeya, Ilim, Chauss, and others) located in West and East Siberia. On the other hand, the authors indicate lack of local ceramic traditions of the Barabinsky Tartars about the Ust-Tartas pottery. The materials presented in this paper enable us to get an idea of the material culture of the Baraba Russian population in the period of conquering Siberia.