VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   1 (40)  (2018)

Anthropology  

 

Solodovnikov K.N., Rykun  M.P.

AN AUTOCHTHONOUS COMPONENT IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF THE ENEOLITHIC BRONZE AGE IN THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS REVISITED: MATERIALS FROM THE COLLECTION AND ARCHIVE OF THE ANTHROPOLOGY ROOM AT TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY

The Eneolithic Bronze Age paleoanthropological materials from the Ulitinsky type Bronze Age burial of Karasu II (the Altai Mountains), as well as previously unpublished measurements of skulls from 1964 excavations of the Afanasievo cemetery of Ust-Kuium are introduced into scientific use. Osteometric characteristics of the individuals from the Ulitinsky type burial affirm that they belong to the steppe morphotype, which is widespread among the populations of the Bronze Age in the steppes and forest-steppe areas of Eurasia. According to the craniometric parameters, a female skull from Karasu II shows features of the anthropological type of the local population of the Altai-Sayan highland with a brachycranial skull shape and some Mongoloid features. Two female skulls from the Afanasievo burial ground of Ust-Kuium originate from burials with a set of ornaments which differ from one-culture complexes. Their Europeoid appearance is typical of the alien Protoeuropeoid population, but one of the skulls is also characterized by brachycrania, which is considered to be influence of local craniological complexes.

Key words: Afanasievo culture, the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age, the Altai Mountains, paleoanthropology, craniometry, Protoeuropeoids, Mongoloids.

 

Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Zhamkochyan .S., Hakopyan N.G., Babayan F.S., Engibaryan A.A., Khachatryan .., Eganyan L.G.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS POPULATION AND ETHNOGENETIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGE

The article presents preliminary results of an anthropological research of human bone remains, obtained during excavations of medieval monuments on the territory of the Republic of Armenia. Cases of deliberate artificial modifications of skulls and unintentional cradle deformations were observed. Two unusual shapes (triangular, circular) of gaskets on the occipital bone in the individuals with frontal-occipital deformation were found. An individual from Burakn with artificial modification of the skull is characterized by a static asymmetry of the skull, the facial skeleton and the dental system. Craniological data indicates a heterogeneous anthropological composition of the population. A specific set of characteristics close to the Caucasion type were present among the inhabitants of Hovhannavank in the Late Middle Age. Results of the intergroup statistical analysis identified close morphological affinities between the Middle Age skulls from Armenia with groups from Southern and North-Western Caucasus, Iran, Mesopotamia. This article also analyzes morphological features of the postcranial skeleton. Muscular relief n bones was very well developed in the vast majority of cases.

Key words: Armenia, Middle Ages, Craniology, Osteology, Odontology, artificial modification of skulls, torticollis, heterogeneity of population.