VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 3 (42) (2018)
Enshin D.N., Skochina S.N.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE EARLY NEOLITHIC POPULATION HAVING RESIDED AROUND LAKE MERGEN AS A STRATEGY OF ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE MERGEN 6 SETTLEMENT)
This paper sets out to analyse the economic activity of the inhabitants of an Early Neolithic settlement on the north-eastern coast of Lake Mergen (Lower Ishim River, south of Western Siberia) with the purpose of determining specific strategies of their adaptation to natural conditions (based on the materials of the Mergen 6 settlement). The initial data for the analysis were taken from studies characterizing the climate at the beginning of the Holocene, the paleolandscape characteristics of the territory, the geomorphological position of the settlement, the composition and conditions for the formation of the archaeozoological collection and hunting/fishing gear sets. A comprehensive analysis of these sources made it possible to develop an economic model describing the functioning of the settlement. The main features of the settlement functioning model involve the location of the settlement at the intersection of the so-called «feeding landscapes» (forest/steppe at the macro-level, lake/river at the micro-level); a probable year-round, stationary character of the settlement; the equivalence between two main economic sectors (hunting and fishing); reliance in the economic activity on ungulate hunting and fishing; a supposedly seasonal character of hunting and fishing certain fauna species. In our opinion, this model suitably reflects adaptation strategies used by the ancient population, whose main goal was to ensure the sustainability and productivity of their economy. In addition, the conducted historiography analysis has shown that the aforementioned elements of the model were common for all ancient societies with the appropriating type of economy that resided in Eurasian forest and forest-steppe territories in the Mesolithic-Neolithic periods.
Key words: Early Neolithic, economic activity, adaptation strategy, hunting, fishing, settlement Mergen 6.
Papin D.V., Stepanova N.F., Fedoruk A.S.
LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMICS FROM A STEPPE REGION BETWEEN THE OB AND IRTYSH RIVERS AS A SOURCE FOR RECONSTRUCTING ETHNOCULTURAL INTERACTION PROCESSES
Archaeological cultures formed at the end of the Bronze Age in the steppe area between the Ob and Irtysh rivers are characterized by a considerable level of variability. Under conditions, when stratigraphic observations fail to reliably differentiate archaeological materials, pottery can serve as an important cultural diagnostic indicator. The Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements having situated in a steppe region between the Ob and Irtysh rivers have long attracted the attention of researchers, because they feature all the archaeological cultures present in the region. Thus, during many years of studying various archaeological structures, the authors of the present work have gathered a significant collection of ceramics and other artefacts in this area. In this research, ceramic fragments collected in the Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements were analysed in terms of the forms of vessels, ornamental patterns and the methods used for ornamentation. The morphology and ornamentation of vessels was analysed using V.F. Gening’s method. In addition, the historical-cultural approach developed by A.A. Bob-rinsky was applied. The technical and technological analysis allowed the skills of ceramics production to be taken into account. As a result, all the ceramics fragments under investigation have been broadly distinguished into eight historical and cultural groups and their transitional forms: Sargary-Alekseevka ceramics, Dongal ceramics, Irmen ceramics, Irmen-Dongal ceramics, hybrid ceramics (Sargary-Dandybay), glazed pots with flutes on the neck, Dandybay ceramics, pottery made on a potter's wheel. A technical and technological analysis was performed on samples from 240 Late Bronze Age vessels, with 154 and 86 vessels being taken from Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements, respectively. For each settlement, a comparative analysis of raw materials and moulding compositions was carried out between the groups. It is found that ceramics from all the groups and both sites feature general and individual characteristics. It is established that both settlements shared a common tradition of adding chamotte (grog) to the moulding composition. The tradition of using grus was not local, but rather had been brought from outside. As a result of the research, it is found that societies having resided in the Altai steppe in the Late Bronze Age were influenced by the Sargary-Alekseevka and Irmen cultures. Thus, the Sargary-Alekseevka population brought the tradition of using grus in pottery making. At the final stage of the Bronze Age, representatives of the Dongal culture arrived to this land, thus stimulating the process of ethnocultural interaction between the Irmenskaya, Sargary-Alekseevka and Dongal cultures.
Key words: steppe Ob-Irtysh interfluve, Altai, ceramics, technical and technological analysis, the Late Bronze Age.
TO THE QUESTION OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES USED BY PAKHOMOVO PEOPLE IN THE TRANS-URAL REGION
Research into the diverse aspects of the life of ancient people is known to involve a number of difficulties, such as the lack of data, limited selections of artefacts, etc. Recently, combined approaches and methods successfully applied in various scientific disciplines have attracted much attention. One of the most promising approaches is the use of modelling methods that are based on both simple and multilevel mathematical algorithms. Unfortunately, the specifics of Bronze Age archaeological sources does not allow a comprehensive application of such techniques for the reconstruction or assessment of historical processes in the Trans-Ural region. However, the application of GIS techniques proves beneficial for obtaining more objective information, verifying working hypotheses and validating obtained results. In this work, we investigate the specifics of the Pakhomovo culture, both in general and on the level of some settlements, by comparing various data sets on their economic activity, environmental management and the choice of adaptation strategies. A correlation analysis between various archaeological sources has allowed us to reveal a number of logical inconsistencies, to explain or to partly prove the validity or incorrectness of certain conclusions. Using specific GIS methods, the results of paleogeography studies and paleozoological data, we have defined a hypothetical border between the economic areas of some settlements, described specifics of their economic approaches and presented some arguments on re-settlement history. In order to assess the level of spatial development in these settlements, their logistics opportunities and resource potential, we also applied techniques used in spatial archaeology and territory analysis. As a result, the hypothesis about the effect of surrounding landscapes and economy patterns on the choice of spatial development strategies has been confirmed. It is concluded that the Pakhomovo population adopted a number of cultural traditions from the Andronovo community, thus choosing the same territories and developmental approaches.
Key words: Pakhomovo culture, Tobol River, Ishim River, economy, spatial analysis, typology of the archaeological sites, strategy.
ZHURAVLEVO CERAMICS ASSEMBLAGE OF THE EARLY IRON AGE FROM THE BORKI 1 SETTLEMENT (ACCORDING TO THE 2013–2014 STUDY)
This article presents the results of a technical and technological analysis carried out to investigate Zhuravlevo-type ceramics collected from the Borki 1 settlement located in the Ishim river basin (W. Siberia). Ceramics samples were analysed using the historical and cultural approach and methods developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The conducted research has revealed the heterogeneity of traditions among potters in the Zhuravlevo culture in selecting raw materials, who primarily used clay sand and silt clay. The analysis of the moulding compositions has shown that chamotte and organic additives were frequently used; however, in some cases, chamotte was not added. When constructing vessels, patches were used as building elements. The surface treatment of ceramics was largely performed by smoothing objects with spatulas, wooden scrapers or knives. Only a quarter of the vessels under study have the signs of sealing or polishing. The vessels were fired in simple hearths. Vessels were decorated using smooth stamps, or, less frequently, comb stamps. Various ornament elements made by surface treatment tools — wooden spatulas or knives — were rather customary. The ceramics of the Zhuravlevo type is characterised by «pearl» belts, or, less frequently, holes. Ornamental motifs most commonly included inclined, vertical or arranged in a staggered order stamp prints or angle, grid, horizontal herringbone or vertical zigzag patterns. The comparison of the manufacturing style of Zhuravlevo vessels with that found in the assemblage of Krasnozerska culture (Ishim basin) shows the similarity of pottery traditions in these population groups. At the same time, the results of our study evidence to the appearance of features inherent in the Early Iron Age pottery in terms of both the technology of manufacturing vessels and their ornamentation. The conducted research suggests a continuity between the Krasnozerka and Zhuravlevo cultural traditions in the Ishim basin.
Key words: Siberia, Low Ishim basin, Borki 1 settlement, Zhuravlevo type of ceramics, technical-and-technological analysis, ornamentation.
THE EXCAVAION OF A MARKET PLACE IN TOBOLSK
This article presents the results of the excavation works of a marketplace that was laid in the historical part of the lower village of Tobolsk, near the Kurdyumka river. The conducted archaeological research has established two building periods in this part of the city. The first building period is represented by powerful, well-stratified sediments containing the remains of the wooden trading rows of the marketplace that functioned in the 18th–19th centuries. The second period, which remains were found in the lower occupation layer, is represented by the fragments of residential buildings dated late 17th — early 18th century. The materials collected in the excavation site feature typical mass artefacts (tableware made of clay, porcelain, faience, glass, and a wide assortment of iron products and leather shoes), as well as some rare findings (chess figures, smoking pipes, crosses, rings, buttons, seals, bullets, clay and wooden toys, bone combs, etc.). The assemblage comprises coins and seals in large quantities, which were reliably attached to certain occupation layer strata. The provided characteristics of trade shops and goods having been sold therein have expanded the views of historians on trade relations in one of the first Russian towns in Siberia. According to the archaeological data, the products of Russian producers, including local ones, intended for wide population strata, greatly prevailed in the market of the lower village during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Key words: Tobolsk, the bottom posad, market square XVIII–XIX centuries, retail shops, residential buildings of the late XVII — early XVIII century, artifacts.
TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE MAP OF 1806: A SOURCE FOR SEARCHING ERMAK’S GRAVE OR FALSIFICATION OF ITS AUTHOR?
This article is aimed at investigating the 1806 Map of Tobolsk Governorate, which has been presented to a wider research community relatively recently. This is a unique source indicating the exact location of the grave of Ermak (the first Russian conqueror of Siberia). On the «Plan of a location near the Irtysh river, the Vagay river and other lakes and rivers...», a provincial land surveyor V. Filimonov put a sign indicating a dry Siberian pine 10 yards from the tomb of Ermak. In an extensive text on the map, Filimonov in his own words outlined the details of G.F. Miller’s data referring to the last battle of Ermak and the details of his burial. This text was supplemented by information obtained from the local Tatar population. At the same time, as a conscientious researcher, he clearly delineated the narration of G.F. Miller’s works from the gathered data. In recent articles, I.V. Belich has made an assumption that V. Filimonov forged the historic source by changing Miller’s text and unreasonably mapped the location of Ermak’s grave near Begishevî Yurts. However, a careful analysis of the explanatory text to the map has not confirmed this assumption. In addition, there is no proof for suppositions about Filimonov’s grabbing habit and the disclosure of the forgery back in the 19th century. Archaeological excavations conducted on the site of the alleged grave of Ermak have failed to confirm the statement that local residents just pointed to V. Filimonov at a medieval burial ground or the location of a revered tree. At the same time, the map analysis shows that it was drawn by a professional, who indicated Ermak’s burial place based on the information having been obtained from local residents. As any other historical source, this map undeniably requires a comprehensive re-examination and criticism. However, this should be a scientific criticism, rather than mere accusations against its author.
Key words: Map of Tobolsk Governorate of 1806, land surveyor V. Filimonov, Ermak’s grave, S.U. Remezov, G.F. Miller, Siberian Tartars.