BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 5 (2005)
The article deals with evolution and distribution of comb-and-pit pottery complexes within different cultures on West Siberian territory in the Late Holocene. It is noted that these complexes reached their full flourish and maximum distribution (almost through the whole territory of West Siberia) during a climatic optimum of sub-boreal Holocene. The process is related with a high adaptive capacity to assimilation processes among comb-and-pit ornamental pattern bearers treated by many researchers as ancestors of modern Nenets people.
The author has compiled historiographical materials regarding origin and further evolution of the Andreevsky culture. Subject to consideration being opinions and approaches towards identification and investigation of the Andreevsky culture made by archaeologists in different years. Resulting from historiographical analysis, the author summarizes different viewpoints expressed by researchers of the Andreevsky culture.
The article describes particulars of
technological traditions with respect to the Neolithic pottery production in the
Tobol-Ishim basin. The paper is based on the collections obtained from a number
of the Neolithic settlements of Mergen 3, Yurtobor 3, and Mergen 6 related to
different historical periods. The Boborykino people settling through a vast
territory of the Tobol-Ishim basin were quite a developed ethnos with a definite
production culture to be quite resistant to innovations. However, gradually they
changing certain potter’s techniques, while preserving a general system of
making pottery (attributed to the Koshkinsky type). Actually, the Koshkinsky
relics have almost entirely preserved the Boborykino potter’s technological
traditions. Thus, they seem to be attributed just as the later stage of the
Basing on integrated analysis
of stone and bone Eneolithic inventory, the paper defines features of economic
activities among the settlers of the Mergen microzone in the Lower Ishim basin.
The author identifies location of the Mergen 6 settlement among the other
Eneolithic cultures of the adjacent territories.
The article considers
materials obtained from the settlement of Imbyryaj-1 located on the territory of
the Ingalsky Valley complex represented by ancient and medieval sites.
Cultural-and-chronological complexes of this settlement date back to the
Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age. The Eneolithic complex is represented by
materials analogous to the Shapkoulsky and Lybaevo relics. The most
representative complex of the site is composed by materials dating back to the
Early Bronze Age. Obvious similarity of the ornamental pottery patterns of
Imbyryaj-1 with those of the Andrevsky Eneolithic culture makes it possible to
conclude on continuity of these traditions. A representative series of clay
sinkers could be also dated back to the same period. For the time being, the
materials obtained from the settlement of Imbyryaj-1 are the only source
reflecting the transformation result of the Andreevsky Eneolithic culture into
tradition of the Early Bronze Age.
The article summarizes investigation results with respect to the double-site fortified settlement of Karagaj-Aul 1 located at the junction of the Tap and Tobol in Tyumen Oblast. The available materials reflect contacts among the population of the late Bronze Age — Early Iron Age, testifying to the fact that the Itkoul culture was involved in the formation of the Baitovo look complexes in the forest zone of the Tobol basin.
The article publishes materials on a new archaeological site — the settlement of Barsoutchye located on the Iska river, to be of great importance for investigation of cultural genesis of the West group of the Ugrians, as well as their contacts with neighbouring communities. Subject to partial investigation, by means of reconnaissance excavations on the citadel, being two semi-dug-outs and a ground dwelling within the settled area. It is a rich collection of the Yudino culture artefacts that has been obtained, including two thousand pottery fragments, articles of everyday life and armament, labour utensils, ornaments and cult things. A diverse pottery shaping and decoration, together with stratigraphic and planigraphic observations, enable to assume that the site was settled twice, namely, in the second half of the Õth — early ÕIth c. and in the late XIIth c. The authors trace evolution of the pottery complexes from open cups and vessels with a curved-out neck and primarily comb ornamentation to closed cups/vessels with a vertical and curved-in neck and decorations in plain pattern, and further on, to more complex string ornamental compositions.
The article publishes materials on a dwelling of the Bolsherechensky (Kamenka) culture from the settlement of Ordynskoye 9. It is of particular interest due to availability of two hearths: one of them used for heating and cooking, while the other — for production purposes. The latter has a pit and traces of non-ferrous metal working. The investigations revealed fragments of a kiln with a hemispherical vault, bronze splash outs, fragments of a melting pot, a broken knife and an awl used as raw material, and crushed bones used as high-temperature fuel.
Using method of limiting states, the authors undertook reconstruction of a roofing structure of the Sargatka semi-dug out dwellings. Subject to calculation being ultimate load on carrying roofing structures and supporting pillars. The paper describes possible options of warmth-keeping jackets, their characteristics and thickness. It defines the purpose of roofing additional pillars, namely, load redistribution from the walls. Investigation of general structure of roofing and walls showed that such construction was quite strong and would prevent from collapsing of the walls.
Basing on results of recent
archaeological excavations, the article concludes on type, chronology, and
evolution with respect to fortifications of the Rafailovo settlement. It has
been determined that its functioning period covered almost one thousand years
and was accompanied by several major reconstruction works of dwellings and
fortifications. The total area of the citadels, as well as sizes of the
fortifications, would increase from stage to stage. The paper cites on the
fortification dating, according to Ñ-14. It considers details of wood-and-ground
constructions of the rampart, as well as paleozoological and pottery complexes.
The authors suggest reconstruction of the Rafailovo settlement outer look in
different periods of its existence. They conclude on early stage contacts
between the Rafailovo settlers and the bearers of the Baitovo culture, while in
the later periods — mostly with the Gorokhovo population, and still later — with
the Kashino one.
The article is devoted to correlation between the data of ancient written tradition and archaeological data as to the existence of the Sarmatian tribe of the «Aryan bears». The analysis of the information on locations of the sites commemorating a bear image, enables to assume that primordial dwelling territory of this tribe was steppe zone of South Urals. About the IIIrd c. B.C., the «Aryan bears», among the other Sarmatian tribes, were involved into a broad migration process covering almost the entire Eurasian steppe zone. The available data on time and direction of the Sarmatian migrations, are well correlated with such sacral articles found in several complexes as vessels with bear-shaped handles. The findings have led the author to conclude that these complexes were left by representatives of the «Aryan bears». Thus, apart from South Urals, traces of the «Aryan bears», might be followed in the East Aral basin, in the Middle Don, and in the interfluve of the Dnestr and Prut.