Anthropology and Paleodemography

Razhev D. I., Yepimakhov A. V.

Phenomen of Multiplicity of Children's Burials in Burial Grounds of the Bronze Age

Among the Sintashta and Andronovo sites (in a broad sense), there is a big number of burial grounds characterized by quantitative prevalence of children’s burials, as well as presence of collective isochronal burials. This makes them distinct from the necropolises of the previous and subsequent periods, in terms of demographic and ritual characteristics. The fact regarding a very big portion of the deceased before 14 years of age fails to be clearly explained within paleodemographic concepts. As the authors believe, one hypothesis covering the facts of multiplicity of children’s burials, collective burials, as well as social selectivity, could be the so called «sacral» epidemics. In accordance to this concept, death of majority of the children buried in the mounds could result from epidemics of some catching disease created by a respected animal, namely, a cow. A sacral object and/or nature of epizooty might give significant grounds for respecting the deceased children. A role of appropriate anthropozoonosis might be played by foot-and-mouth, or similar disease.


Tkachev A. A., Tkacheva N. A.

On Demographic Situation in the Steppes of Central Kazakhstan in the Middle Bronze Age

The article describes paleodemographic situation on the territory of Central Kazakhstan, to be one of the key distribution regions with respect to the sites representing the Andronovo cultural and historical entity. In the period of Middle Bronze Age, this was a development area of the Nurtajsky and Atasusky cultures to be genetically related with each other, and represented by numerous settlements and burial grounds. Basing on mature anthropological samples obtained from the Nurtajsky and Atasusky burial grounds, the authors undertook reconstruction of paleodemographic situation in the Nurtajsky and Atasusky societies. Subject to identification being also major social and age groups within the Nurtajsky and Atasusky communities.