BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 6 (2006)
Zakh V. A.
Ornamental Traditions in West Siberia
The paper proceeds with reviewing and analysing ornamental traditions (receding-and-blackened, comb, pit-and-comb, ornamented-and-stamped ones) developed in West Siberia. It points to the traditions existing during a long period, from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages, as well as those registered under a relatively short-term period. Most probably, they correspond to definite ethnic groups or ethnoses.
Usacheva I. V.
The article analyses
origination and functioning with regard to one of the stone inventory categories
called “utyuzhki”. The obtained results display that a tradition of making the
“utyuzhki ” originated in the 10th-9th mill. BC in the
proto-Neolithic complexes of the Near East still oriented to the economy of
appropriation, wherefrom the tradition spread into the Eurasian territory.
During the 10th-2nd mill. BC the «utyuzhki» revealed
themselves in the material of some fifty cultures and cultural types, steadily
interrelating with economies of appropriation. The «utyuzhki» were accompanied
by stone industry of geometrical plates. Their existence was strictly determined
by the steppe and forest-steppe conditions. When, upon development of farming
and stockbreeding, the niche proved to be occupied, the «utyuzhki» vanished.
Zakh V. A., Skochina S. N., Parkhimovich S. G.
The Earth Burial Ground of chepkul 21 Northward of the andreevsky Lake System
The burial ground of Chepkul 21 is one of the earliest among the necropolises known in the vicinity of the Andreevsky lake and in the Lower Tobol basin. The time of its existence falls on the end of the Holocene Atlantic period. Culturally, the site was attributed as Shapkul one. The burial rite, together with certain categories of the inventory, finds analogies in the coeval cemeteries in West Siberia and North Eurasia.
Throughout the Stone Age, flints served as initial stuff for chipping off and further making different tools from the obtained chips and plates. It should be added that every Uralian region developed its own manner in the use of local gravel. Flints were not only applied as raw material for chipping off, but were directly used as various tools. With no treatment, they were applied as picks, retouchers, anvils, paints grinders, pestles, graters, steels, flintstones, spatulas. After slight finishing, flints served as hammers, net-weights, anchors, thrust-bearings, shells for a sling, etc.
Apart from the household and industrial fields, flints were widely used in the ritual, cultic, and art practices of the ancient population. As cultic things, those could be found in cemeteries, pits, hearths, and at sacred places. Rare finds being pendants made of flints or flints decorated with engravings and geometrical ornament. Original art work by ancient man is represented by the so called ornamental flints as anthropomorphic or zoomorphic flint figurines.
Summarizing, it could be noted that flints were widely used in the economic and cultic practices of the Uralian population from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages. Thus, flints and the articles made thereof serve a valuable source in studying the material and spiritual culture of primitive man.
The article cites preliminary results regarding the fortified settlement of Cheganovo 3 dating to the Late Bronze Age and located in the Low Tobol sub-taiga zone on the periphery of the Suzgun and Barkhatovo areals. The paper gives a description of the settlement inventory represented by an assemblage of typical Late Bronze Age artefacts made of bronze, bone, clay, and stone (clay spinners, bobbins, «bricks», small plastic arts, a bronze ring, bone arrow heads, a stone mace, etc.). A pottery assemblage is characterized by mixed Suzgun-and-Barkhatovo features. Groups of the singled out pottery demonstrate ornamental attributes typical of Suzgun and Barkhatovo cultures, though many vessels combine the ornaments typical of both traditions. The osteologic remains discovered at the site were subject to reconstruction of the animal’s species composition represented by both wild and domestic individuals. Quantitatively, bones of domestic animals predominated, with those of cattle and horse prevailing. The proportion of the domestic animals, in particular, a bigger amount of cattle, points to the settled stockbreeding. On the whole, the the Cheganovo 3 economy could be characterized as an integrated one. Basically, it is of a producing nature (stockbreeding), though with a considerable role of an appropriation constituent (hunting and fishing). Apart from the said main economies, the population used to develop handicrafts including pottery, leather-dressing, woodworking, and weaving.
The given article cites the investigation results with regard to Zavodoukovsk 9 habitation site containing complexes of three cultural-and-chronological periods: the Neolithic, the Late Bronze Age, and the beginning of the Early Iron Age. The material enables us to comment on the traditions of Barkhatovo culture to transform into the Early Iron Age Baitovo culture, reconstructing the historical situation in the forest-steppe Transurals in the early 1000 BC.
The article represents basic results and problems in investigating the Early Iron Age Kashino culture in West Siberia. Subject to analysis being a pottery assemblage as well as burial rites. The paper is supplied with a photo of the Kashino sites. The author determines chronologies in the existence of the said culture and migration routes of the Kashino population into Transurals.
The article describes the burial rite and inventory obtained from one of the most interesting Celtic cemeteries of the «prince» rank. The site dating to 550 BC was investigated in Hochdorf in the vicinity of Stuttgart, Germany.
The paper presents the investigation material regarding a new Transuralian mediaeval site of Krivolukovo fortified settlement on the right bank in the mid-stream of the Tobol . It could be referred to as a short-term settlement of a disperse community, to be, in all probability, of seasonal nature, dating to the 13th c. AD. The authors give a description of dwellings, fortification, and a pottery assemblage, pointing to the local features in ornamental traditions. Basing on the multiple analysis, the Krivolukovo fortified settlement is positioned among other mediaeval sites. The analysis of the zoological collection and inventory evidences the integrated economy run by the population.
Methods of Surface Investigation of Non-Ferrous Metals
The article describes essential principles concerning visual surface investigation of ancient metal using binocular microscopes. Reconstruction of manufacturing methods in metal industry is possible only by the articles’ integrated investigation. Such investigation, side by side with the data of chemical and metallographic analysis, shall account for results of surface survey of metal articles. This allows to obtain important data as to character of casting and finishing with regard to identification of material, type of casting moulds, as well as casting methods: into stiff moulds (stone, metal, wooden), or plastic ones (loam, sand). Casting was performed both into open univalve moulds with a flat lid, and into partially closed bivalve moulds, closed bivalve symmetric and asymmetric moulds, three-valved and four-valved ones. Besides, they used lost-wax-process preserving a mould, and losing an ingot mould, as well as hollow casting with liquid metal poured from inside a mould. Forged articles have less distinct visual characteristics. Thus, any conclusions on the manufacturing technology could be made only through correlating the data with microstructural analysis. Among visually detected blacksmith defects, one could mention welding cracks, as well as traces of metal red- and cold-shortness. An important thing is to determine the influence produced by the secondary traces of wear on the primary metal structures, as well as availability of strong load impact, high-temperature heating, and continuous tools’ remake. The obtained data showed clear correlation between the traces of tools’ wear, methods of their use, and changes in the metal structure caused by that use. At the same time, justified technological conclusions could be drawn only through correlating the morphological investigation with the data of metallographic analysis.