BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 6 (2006)
History and Ethnography
The article is devoted to the centenary of the manuscript copies published by N.F. Katanov, representing historical and genealogical works by Siberian Tartars as the basic source in the history of the regional Islamization. It is a narration of the events in the late 14th16th cc. AD associated with Islam penetrating into Siberia from Middle Asia (through members of the Sufi Order of Nakshbandiya) and establishing the cult of the Islamite saints. The paper cites the fact that the manuscript copies were obtained for Tobolsk museum by an agronomist named N.L. Skalozubov from the keeper of the Karagaj Yurty mausoleum in 1900. The article analyses the data from the said written sources in terms of todays tradition of worshipping mausoleums of the local saints to be preserved in the Popular Islam among Siberian Tartars.
In the given article, the author attempted to trace the evolution of oaths made by Siberian aborigines. During the investigated period, they werecalled shert'. The paper determines types of the said oaths. One of those was used as the act of practice in court as an element of ordeals. Another kindof shert' was represented by shert' agreements (shert'-taking records) in terms of citizenship and allegiance to the tsar. In a broad sense, shert'-taking by non-Russians was of the same meaning as cross-kissing by the Orthodox Church believers, but shert'-taking was based on the customs and faith of the aboriginal population. There is certain interrelation between shert' agreements and a special article taken from the orders to Siberian voivodes "zhalovannoye slovo" (word of grant).
Under joining Russian citizenship, shert'-taking records of the 17th c. served as the basis for oaths of allegiance to Russian tsars in the 18th century. The comparison of the 1789 oath with shert' of the late 16th c., and shert'-taking record of 1700 shows that despite all differences, the documents have several strongly similar articles, which evidences their succession. Firstly, they contain a necessary indication that the citizenship will by eternal for oath-taking persons; secondly, they bind a regular character of a tribute (yasak) or service; thirdly, those taking an oath swear to remain loyal to local representatives of the central power; and fourthly, they pledge to inform the local authorities on any cases of "instability and treason" on the part of their fellow-tribesmen concerning everything that might be harmful to the state.
The author emphasizes the necessity to distinguish between shert'-taking as a judicial and ritual act, and shert'-taking record as a legal document which certifies the oath having legal consequences.
The given article cites judgements made by the Russian public regarding essential clauses of the Siberian judicial reform in 1896 under its development. Some periodicals confined themselves to a mere description of the essential clauses, pointing to their restrictions. Others exposed the restrictions suggested by the govemment to analysis and criticism, without waiting for their realization.The main attention was paid to the organization of the justice court, lack of the jury, and limited character of publicity.
The paper is devoted to questions of reproduction, quantitative and qualitative characteristics regarding labour potential of rural household, as well as its composition and size, illustrated with the rural population from Baklanovo Volost, Shadrinsk Uyezd in the late 18th c. Subject to investigation being the data on registration of the population (confession registers, birth-certificates) obtained fron the State archives in Shadrinsk, the Baklanovo Volost governing body, and the church in the rural settlement of Baklanovo.
A type of Russian rural family and the one taken from among the Baklanovo Volost population as its invariant, was, on the one hand, determined by the age-long traditions in its arranging: development of the family structure through male relatives, upbringing and socialization of children within their parents' family, inclusion of a young married couple into a complex family, staying of a married son with his aged parents. On the other hand, it was determined by traditional reproduction of the population, setting certain fertility and mortality parameters. Under the traditional reproduction, heavy infant mortality was resisted using the whole physiological reproductive period in women's life for procreation purposes. In order to achieve optimal age-and-gender balance in the family labour resources, there existed several mechanisms: to accelerate or slow down the division, to accept a newly come son-in-law into the household, to hurry or restrain from arranging marriage of children.
The paper is devoted to questions of development of the written language among the Northern peoples, as well as to writing and publication of the native text-books for national schools in Khanty-Mansi region in the 19201950s, basing on the data from the State archives of the public and political associations in Tyumen Oblast. Under the investigated period, development of the written language and writing of the native text-books faced a number of difficulties. The existence of different dialects in Khanty and Mansi languages resulted in failure to use their common literary languages that were developed in the 1930s. This entailed searching for an adapted version of the written language designed for different ethnolinguistic groups. With that end in view, subject to studying being characteristics of the said dialects. Writing of the text-books was closely connected with development of the written language. Initially, there existed literature common for all the Northern peoples. However, facing difficulties in its practical use, they started to develop special literature for each group of the indigenous population. An important outcome of the process was investigation of the dialects and an attempt to develop the written language for different groups of the indigenous peoples, as well as to write appropriate text-books in the pupils' native languages.
The article gives a general characteristic of reindeer breeding among the Siberian tundra Nenets, describing the distribution areal of the tundra and taiga reindeer, particulars of their food, camping routes, economic pursuits of the reindeer-breeders. Basing on the field material, the author presents typical features of the economic cycle among the reindeer-breeders from Taz and Nadym Dictricts of Yamal-Nenets national region. The paper shows changes within the reindeer-breeding sector among the Nadym Nenets, determined by cultural impact by the Komi-Izhma reindeer-breeders. Subject to analysis being interrelations between reindeer-breeders and workers from the oil-and-gaz producing complex. The author gives recommendations on optimization of mutually beneficially cooperation between the indigenous population and gaz-people, helping to preserve reindeer breeding as one of the most important domestic economies.
The article devoted to describing different aspects of reindeer breeding as one of the most important economies among the Izhma group of the Komi people in North Transurals. Basing on analysis of an extensive corps published and archive written sources, material objects and the data of field investigations, the author considers the factors associated with migration of the Komi-Izhma people into Beryozovo region (uyezd) of Tobolsk province, terms of a lease of the pasture areas from the indigenous population, a prioritized territory of reindeer-breeding, dynamics of the reindeer stock per region and per family, particulars of the production cycle, names of special terms, the biggest rpizooties and methods of their control, development of economic specialization and selection work, sales profits from reindeer products.
economy of the Komi-Izhma people from North Transurals, reindeer breeding was of
dominating importance. The Komi newcomers managed to adapt a traditional system
of reindeer breeding to new circumstances. The Izhma camping-grounds covered a
vast territory, though the main reindeer stock stayed in the area between the
Urals and the left-bank Ob. Reindeer breeding among the Izhma people was of
commodity character, its development was determined by constant improving
technological methods. Among the Komi people, there existed stronger utilitarian
attitude to reindeer expressed in the quality selection of the animals for
slaughtering (young animals for fur, adult individuals for hide and meat),
fuller reindeer use for transportation purposes including cargo carriage. It
gave good chances to develop the Komi-Zyryany reindeer breeding in Beryozovo
region and allowed avoiding total economic collapse under epizooties causing
catastrophic cattle plague.
The article presents the investigation results regarding ethnodemographic processes among the Nenets from Yamal Nenets national region in the early 21st c. The author considers the structure of the ethnically mixed marriages among the Nenets, as well as sociodemographic characteristics of uninational and mixed families. Basing on the analysis of statistical data, the paper shows a set of priorities in choosing a conjugal partner, as well as the influence of ethnic socioeconomic, demographic, and historical conditions upon contracting the interethnic marriages. Dense population in the national settlements, together with employment in the traditional economies, does make for keeping a high endogamous level among the Nenets. Big district and rural centres with higher level of settled life among the Nenets population are registered by a considerable increase of the interethnic marriages, with predominance of conjugal unions with Russians. A higher educational and professional level of the Nenets women, as against men, shaped different priorities in choosing a spouse. Thus, preferable conjugal partners among males being Khanty women, while those among females being men of Russian origin.