BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 7 (2007)
History and Ethnography
Belich I. V.
On etymology, semantics, and history of origin to a mediaeval name of Tyumen
The article considers different Turkic and Finno-Ugric hypotheses in paleolinguistics as to origin of an early name of Tyumen, i.e. Chimgi/Chingi-Tura, as non-fitting either phonetic rules of Siberian Tartars' language, or toponimic realia. A mediaeval designation for Tyumen was Tsymge-Tura denoting “a sodded town” or “a sodded fort”. A comparative analysis of ethnograpic and archaeological data regarding types of dwellings and overgrave constructions genetically related therewith makes it highly probable to conclude on existence of sodded dwellings and other constructions made of sod in Tsymge-Tura. The article actualizes a question as to soundness of counting history of Tyumen from a fort foundation in 1586, while the earliest reference to this pre-Russian town fixed in the Catalonia Atlas under a name of “Singui” corresponds to 1375.
Goncharov Yu. M.
Demographic processes in Tobolsk Guberniya towns during the late XIXth — early XXth century
The article describes demographic processess, i. e. marriage rate, birth rate, and letality rate, taking place in Siberian towns during the late XIXth — early XXth centuries with a town population. The said period served an initial stage of a demographic transition. Demographic processes in Siberian towns developed in the same direction as in European Russian towns, though with a certain delay.
Bakiyeva G. T.
Parish clergy with Siberian Tartars in the XVIIIth — early XXth century
The article traces a role of clergy in life of a Moslem community of Siberian Tartars from mid XVIIIth to the early XXth centuries. Subject to analysis being a structure of a parish clergy, its hierarchy, order and stipulations as to an appointment to clergy posts, as well as rights and liabilities with the country clergy. The paper illustrates reglamentation strengthening on the part of the powers regarding activities of the Moslem clergy during the studied period. A conclusion arrived is that the Moslem clergy, as a consolidating chain of the Tartar community, was treated by the powers as a basic chain of self-government.
Mavlyutova Z. Sh.
On confiscating church treasures in Tyumen Guberniya in 1922
The article considers a question of confiscating church treasures in Tyumen Guberniya in 1922. Subject to study and analysis being documents kept in state archives, together with monographies and articles on the subject. A conclusion arrived is that the hunger of 1921–1922 served as a pretext for another onslaught on the church staying an obstacle for establishing a monopoly of Marxism in ideology and culture.
Farnosova V. V.
Collectivization in life of the Kîìi people from Muzhevsky village Soviet (Yamal-Nenets National Region) in the thirties-forties of the ÕÕth century
The article considers demographic features and an adaptation process of the Komi population from Muzhi village Soviet, Shuryshkary District (Yamal and Nenetz national region) to new socioeconomic conditions in the thirties-forties of the XXth century, an involvement of the Komi people into collective farms, fishing and agricultural cooperative associations. A conclusion arrived is that apart from traditional economic activities, the Komi-Zyryanye from the Upper Urals in the early third of the ÕÕth century were busy in new branches of industry, in a social sphere, as well as in services industry. By 1940, a public mode of production got predominant. A household became of a secondary type, with an exception of reindeer breeding. A majority of the Komi-Zyryanye women grew active in industry.
Yermakova Ye. Ye., Povod N. A.
Traditions in popular hygiene and medicine with the Komi people from the south of Tyumen Oblast
The article is devoted to describing traditions of popular hygiene and medicine with the Komi people from the south of Tyumen Oblast. Basic sources comprised data of field investigations in 2003–2006 on the territory of Yalutorovsk and Yarkovo Districts. The paper analyses a system of traditional and magic actions directed at preventing diseases and improving human health, man's fitness for work, and his longevity, as well as providing best conditions of life existence. The article reveals basic methods of treatment in the Komi popular medicine including verbal therapy, phytotherapy, apitherapy, and water therapy.
Volzhanina Ye. A.
Demographic development of the Nenets from Nadym District, Yamal-Nenets National Region (1930 — early XXIst century)
The article represents demographic development of the Nenets from Nadym District from a formation thereof to the early XXIst century. The undertaken analysis testifies to a rather low average annual growth rate with the Nenets through the District. A determinative as to changing their number remains natural dynamics, i. e. a high birth rate, and a high letality rate. A comparative description of quantitative data for 1930s supports a thesis that a group of the Nadym Nenets among Siberian tundra Nenets was shaped during the first half of the ÕXth century, with an inclusion of “Nenetsized” Khanty therein.