BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 8 (2008)
History and Ethnography
Bakiyeva G. T.
Education reforms with Siberian Tartars in the late XIXth — early XX cc.
The article discusses reforms in a system of Moslem education with Siberian Tartars in the late XIXth — early XXth cc. It is noted that those reforms that came from official powers almost failed in West Siberian Tartar confessional schools. Subject to analysis being a jadidistic reform of school education with Siberian Tartars. The attempted analysis testifies to the fact that due to including the Tartar language into mactabah and madrasah programs, as well as due to teaching secular subjects using the native language, Moslem schools tended to acquire secular features.
Chumak Ye. G.
Basic measures in stste education policy regarding Norhtern indigenous population in 1920s–1959s
State policy in the field of native education up North through 1920s–1950s could be divided into the following periods. A period from 1920s to early 1930s is noted by succession of state decisions, attempting to support native traditions and culture through education, determining basic principles of native school. A period from late 1930s to 1950s being associated with tightening of state policy regarding native question. Subject of education in native school tends to be organized on the unitary basis. In most schools, native language and literature being preserved just as school subjects, with education process taught in Russian, using unified textbooks. All this undermined development of national cultures and languages.
Mavlyutova Z. Sh.
Renovation movement in the Tyumen area in 1920s
One of the tendencies in the Soviet leaders’ policy in 1920s was supporting the church dissent. It was expressed in arising of the so called “renovationists” who used to accuse the clergy in conservatism, criticizing many aspects of the church life. The renovation ideas also grew popular among the church hierarchy in the Tyumen area.
Ilyushina V. V.
On reconstructing a social structure of ancient societies (historiographic aspects)
The article considers studying a social structure of ancient societies from viewpoint of their dual organization in ethnographic literature, illustrating with West Siberian indigeneous peoples. The author touches upon methods of reconstrunction of sociostructures basing on archaeological data.
Volzhanina Ye. A.
Influence of ethnically mixed families upon the number of the Nenets dwelling in Yamal-Nenets National Region in the late XXth — early XXIst cc.
The article cites investigation results regarding ethnic tendencies with the Nenets from Yamal-Nenets national region in the late XXth — early XXIst cc. The author considers territories with mixed and uninational Nenets population, together with international families (their structure, number of persons, and parity), as well as rules to determine children’s nationality by parents in these. Basing on a calculated share of hybrid children in the absolute growth of the Nenets, it was established that an increase of their number in 1980s–1990s resulted from high evel of their natural growth. Siberian tundra and forest Nenets dwelling in Yamal-Nenets national region proved to be less touched by “restoration of nationality” noted for Northern indigenous minorities since late 1980s, and associated with state measures directed at their support.
Povod N. A.
Economic traditions with the Lyapin Komi in the early XXIst c.
The paper is devoted to a description of basic economic traditions with the Komi dwelling in the Lyapin river basin, viz. Saranpaul settlement, and Tschekurya village (Beryozovo district, Khanty-Mansi national region — the Yugra), basing mainly on field data. The author considers details of reindeer breeding, farming, cattle breeding, hunting, fishing, wild plants’ picking, trades and handicraft industries. Subject to clarification being importance of traditional economic branches at different historic stages of the group in question.
Bogordaeva A. A.
Sacrifice clothing with North Khanty in the XXth c.
The article considers details regarding making, ornamenting, and cutting clothing articles meant to be sacrificed to spirits-the-protectors among North Khanty. Articles of the sacrifice clothing include shirts, dressing-gowns, trousers, footwear, headdresses, and mittens. In methods of cutting and ornamenting, the most archaic of those being shirts and dressing-gowns. Special sacrifice articles include headdresses and mittens which are specifically ornamented, and could be used for other ritual purposes.
Alexandrov A. V.
Russian wrestling “using girdles”: genesis, art, terms, classification
The article is devoted to a variety of belt wresting called “Russian”, or “using girdles”. Wrestling “using girdles” originates from wrestling using an embrace, but also was influenced by belt wrestling, as well as by wrestling “seizing by the collar”. It is distinguished by presence of a special instrument, viz. a girdle, as well as particulars of seizing a girdle during an encounter, and broad geography (the Urals, West Siberia, North Kazakhstan). By the middle of the ÕÕth c., three functional blocs (social, archaic, economic) had lost their urgency. Depriving Russians of their national and religious consciousness, as well as destruction of traditional culture resulted in national extremism. Renaissance of traditional festivals with contest elements could be helpful in partially compensating psycho-emotional stress.
Yermakova Ye. Ye.
Traditional magic-and-medical knowledge: a data collection questionnaire
Subject to publication being a questionnaire to collect data on traditional magic-and-medical knowledge, considering basic terms, as well as development of magic-and-mystic skills, knowledge, and features; individual qualities of a person possessing such knowledge; a magic-and-medical ritual; classification of diseases; and traditional methods. The questionnaire is based on the author’s personal experience under field activities, supported by published sources. The publication is meant to help future participants of ethnographic and folklore practices in preparing for a field season.