BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 9 (2009)
History and ethnography
S. N. Tcherbich
SOURCES OF BUILDING UP THE LAND STOCK OF TOBOLSK HOUSE OF THE HIGHEST CLERGY IN THE XVII CENTURY
The paper is devoted to investigating sources of building up the patrimonial economy of Tobolsk House of the highest clergy in the XVII century. Subject to consideration being questions of regulating the growth of the monastery economy on the part of the state, as well as the policy of the Tobolsk highest clergy to increase the land patrimonies.
Key words: Tobolsk House of the highest clergy, monastery land ownership, patrimonies of St. Sophia House.
N. G. Sarapulova
THE OUTCOME OF REFORMING THE RUSSIAN AGRARIAN SECTOR IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY
The article considers the agrarian reform by P.A. Stolypin (1906), namely, re-settlement policy, activity of the Peasant Bank, and development of individual farms. Subject to evaluation being the outcome of reforming agriculture on the territory of Tobolsk guberniya in 1906-1916.
Key words: Agrarian reform, P.A. Stolypin, land ownership, land tenure regulations, Siberian peasantry, Peasant Bank, Re-settlement board.
V. P. Kluyeva
RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY OF POPULATION IN TYUMEN OBLAST (1940-1960)
The article is devoted to a description of religious communities in Tyumen Oblast in 1940-1960. The author cites data on every confession and denomination which existed in the region during the post-war decades. Subject to analysis being the attitude of the state to different confessions and denominations. The conclusion arrived is that for a certain part of the Soviet society religious beliefs remained an important part of their world outlook.
Key words: Social history of the XX century, religion, freedom of worship, members of the Orthodox Church, Moslems, Protestants, Tyumen Oblast.
Yu. N. Kvashnin
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SITUATION WITH THE NENETS IN ARCHANGEL
GUBERNIYA IN THE EARLY 20s
(basing on materials of stock farm censuses of 1924-1925)
The article investigates materials of reports on stock farm censuses conducted in the early 20s among the Nenets of Archangel guberniya. The materials which include integrated statistical data on the Nenets stock farming are insufficient, so the author tried to comment and supplement these with the data by different scholars available at his disposal. The author was lucky to find the data on the ancestral structure of the European Nenets of that period, and mutual relations between the Nenets and Russians, as well as Komi Izhemets. Subject to doubting remained an opinion widespread at the time as to the Nenets’ extinction. The basic conclusion of the article being an assumption that after the conducted censuses they laid the foundation of mutually beneficial cooperation with the Nenets without excessive intrusion into their social relations, economy, culture, and household. Nevertheless, the changed political situation in the country prevented from further development of these relations.
Key words: The European Nenets, All-Russian census of 1920-1921, the Nenets nomadic territories, ancestral structure, reindeer breeding, “orphan” reindeer, demographic situation.
Ye. A. Volzhanina
DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE YAMAL NENETS IN THE EARLY THIRD OF THE XX CENTURY
The article considers numerical dynamics and demographic characteristics of the Yamal Nenets in the early third of the XX century. The author describes the development of registration with respect to the nomadic population as well as the influence of traditional mode of life and notions about man, time, family, and relations with the Russians on demographic statistics. The calculated demographic indices testify to the fact of simple reproduction of generations and absence of extinction among the Nenets. Basing on analysis of the data regarding the censuses and land management expeditions, the author proves that the fixed high absolute population growth results from numerical adjustment and assimilation processes.
Key words: Ethnodemography, Samoyeds, Nenets,Yamal-Nenets national region, Yamal, Siberian non-Russians, census of the population.
V. V. Ushnitsky
TUNGUS CLANS IN YAKUTIA OF THE XVII CENTURY: QUESTIONS OF ORIGIN AND ETHNIC IDENTITY
The present article considers data on Tungus clans in Yakutia of the XVII century. By the time of the Russian arrival, the Tungus clans occupied a vast space on the territory of Yakutia along the river banks of the Yana, Viluj, Aldan, Anadyr’, Tompo, and Olekma. Among the biggest Tungus clans one could mention those of bulyashes, ugyulyats, dolgans, nyurmagans, bayagyirs, ezhens, sologons, maugyirs, momogyirs, shilyagyirs, and sinyigyirs. The article gives a detailed description of etymological links between the names of the Tungus clans and Mongolian ethnonyms of the XIII century.
Key words: Ethnogenesis, ethnonyms, toponyms, Tungus clans, Tunguses, Sheevej, Evenks, Uvan’, Yakutia, Mongols.
G. T. Bakiyeva
DISTINCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO DEVELOPMENT OF A JUDICIAL SYSTEM WITH SIBERIAN TARTARS IN THE XVIII – EARLY XX CENTURY
The article considers transformation of a traditional judicial system with Siberian Tartars in the space of the XVIII – early XX century. The author marks an importance of a rural community in the life of the Tartars, which served not only a board of self-administration, but also performed certain judicial functions. Subject to investigation being the system of a legal procedure with the Siberian Tartars, and a role played by official persons of a community in deciding legal cases. The article shows that the Tartar legal procedure and legal system, distinctive of traditional features in the XVIII century, gradually leveled. In the course of administrative reforms, it was legal unification and bureaucratic tendencies that started to prevail in the court. However, despite gradual ousting of the traditional legal norms from the legal procedure, the authorities had to allow for certain cultural and religious peculiarities with the Siberian Tartars.
Key words: Siberian Tartars, legal system, legal powers, rural community, rural gathering, Moslem clergy, traditional norms.
N. A. Povod
DISTINCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE OPENING UP THE LOWER TOBOL BASIN BY KOMI SETTLERS IN THE XIX CENTURY
The article considers questions of the opening up the Lower Tobol basin by Komi settlers in the XIX century, associated with allotment of arable lands and their use, as well as with their interaction with the local Tartar population. The author cites archive data demonstrating methods of assigning the lands to the settlers, including agricultural utilization reflected in the local toponyms, cultic and economic projects, appeals to the court, to the Tobolsk governor, and to the Russian Emperor.
Key words: Komi (Zyryans), migrations, Lower Tobol basin, Yalutorovsk Okrug of Tobolsk guberniya, settlement, arable lands.
A. A. Bogordayeva
ARTICLES OF A SHAMAN COSTUME FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE YAMAL-NENETS REGIONAL MUSEUM AND EXHIBITION COMPLEX NAMED AFTER I.S. SHEMANOVSKY (the city of SALEKHARD)
Basing on comparative and typological method aiming at ethnical identification, the article investigates articles of a shaman costume acquired on the territory of North-West Siberia, - a caftan, a breastplate, and two head-dresses.
Key words: Shaman costume, head-dress, crown, breastplate, caftan, Nenets, Selkoups, Evenks, Kets, Yamal-Nenets regional museum and exhibition complex named after I.S. Shemanovsky.
A. V. Alexandrov
HEAD-FIGHTING IN THE RUSSIAN CONTEST-AND-APPLIED CULTURE
The article is devoted to the technique of head-fighting. This technique remains a little-studied element in the entire picture of the Russian contest-and-applied culture. The head-fighting was located at the meeting-point of the contest-game and military–applied cultures. Striking a blow with a head was efficiently used in fights and fistcuffs. The required skills were shaped in the course of village games and amusements imitating animal fights. Technical minimalism, practical efficiency, and quick training made for preserving head-blows in true street fights up to now.
Key words: Head-fighting, Russian contest-and-applied culture, contest-and-applied culture, technique of head-blows, Russian hand-to-hand fighting, kalgan (crown of head).