VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 1 (32) (2016)
Sverchkov L.M., Boroffka N.
Period of Yaz-II: stages and chronology
The archaeological site of Yaz depe was excavated over 50 years ago by V.M. Masson, and has been a reference point for the Iron Age — Yaz-I, Yaz-II and Yaz-III — in Central Asia since then. At that time it was dated to the middle of the 2nd to the beginning of the 1st Millennium BC In the early 1970s monuments of this period were discovered near the modern settlement of Bandykhan, southern Uzbekistan. Work there was renewed by a joint Uzbek-German team, starting in 2005, which gave new results for understanding the pottery evolution of the Yaz-I to III periods and allowed a subdivision of the Yaz-II period into phases A and B. Radiocarbon analyses of samples from stratigraphic context also give these periods absolute ages 10th–8th Century BC for Yaz-IIA and 7th–6th Century for Yaz-IIB. These new materials and dates are published here. In the concluding remarks the general historical context is presented, with a discussion of the Frada revolt which was crushed by the Achaemenid Empire, as is known from ancient texts. We also remark the Kavi kingdom and its connections to Zoroastrian chronology and tradition, which falls into this period. In our opinion the Yaz-II distribution coincides with the Iranian World — the «Arjan-Vaichakh», whose northern border is given by the Hissar mountain range with their well-known enemies — the legendary Turan.
Key words: Central Asia, Uzbekistan, Early Iron Age, Yaz-I, Yaz-II, Yaz-III, pottery typology, chrono-logy, Achaemenid history, Frada revolt, Kavi kingdom, Avesta.
Chairkina N.M., Dubovtceva E.N.
Ceramics satyginskii type of the settlement Nizhnee ozero III
The article describes the Neolithic pottery complex of the Satygino type. It was found in multilayer settlement Nizhnee ozero III located at the base of the East macroslope of Ural Mountain, in south part of the North Transurals. Three groups of pottery were recorded in remains of constructions ¹ 1–3 dated to the Neolithic. Two of them have a great similarity with findings of the Koshkino and the Sumpan`ya types. The paper deals with the third group of ceramic. Most of these potteries are the closed-shape vessels, some of them profiled and rims do not have influxes. The bottoms are plain but there are also rounded. Sculptural ornamentation as relief bands, located in the upper part of the body, expresses the main feature of this ceramic group. They are straight or wavy, formed with applying technique or stretching of the vessel walls, decorated with incisions. All other patterns made in the technique of drawing and pricking, rarer of pricking-dragging. The analysis of the typological, morphological and technological characteristics, the planigraphy and stratigraphy of finds location, radiocarbon dates and comparisons with the Neolithic complexes of the Transurals, West Siberia and neighbor territories allowed to make hypotheses about cultural identity and period of existence of this specific complex. This pottery considered in the context of the Neolithic cultures of East Europe, conditionally called the pricking-ornamented cultures. It has analogy with the Koshkino, Boborykino and Satygino types of ceramic in the Transurals and West Siberia. In our opinion this pottery has the greatest similarity to the pottery of the Satygino type from the settlements of Sumpan`ya IV, VI of Ust`Vagil`skiy hill. In our view, the proposal to include the Satygino type in the area of the Boborykino culture is not justified. At present stratigraphic observations, the results of radiocarbon dating and the differences in technology and ornamentation of the ware shows the presence of at least two groups of relief bands ceramics on the territory of the Transurals and West Siberia, with local and/or chronological differences. The Satygino type pottery existed in parallel with the Sumpan`ya culture and at some point with the Koshkino culture on the territory of the North Transurals and the Konda lowland probably about 6750–5000 years BC (cal.). The Boborykino type of ceramic (including relief bands) had a larger area of extension and existed later, about 4700–3800 years BC (cal.), apparently together with the Bas`yanovo type of ceramic.
Key words: Neolithic, ceramics type, tipological, morphological and technological characteristics, Satygino type, Boborykino culture.
Archaeological data on obsidian exchange in Northern Mesopotamia in IV–III mill. BC.
The article deals with a range of questions concerning obsidian exchange in settlements of Northern Mesopotamia. The chronological framework includes IV and III mill. BC (from Late Ubaid to Akkadian Periods). The first part presents the state of research of obsidian exchange in the Near East. Several topics are discussed: obsidian sourcing, models of raw material distribution and connection to specialized flint blades’ production and distribution. In the second part a more detailed data on obsidian distribution in settlements of Northern Mesopotamia in IV–III mil. BC is presented. Information on obsidian sources location is supplemented with parameters such as obsidian to flint ratio and its technological context. Tool and adornments production is revised. As a result different ways and forms of obsidian distribution are set in chronological perspective. The hypothesis on specialized obsidian and flint blade production and distribution is revised. Several sites with exceptional place in obsidian exchange were distinguished which were also connected with metal distribution.
Key words: obsidian, Ñhalcolithic, Åarly Bronze Age, Near East, Northern Mesopotamia.
Kiriushin Iu.F., Grushin S.P., Leontieva D.S.
Andronovo settlement Shlyapovo in the Upper Ob
The Andronovo settlement complexes of the Upper Ob are studied extremely weak. In this regard, the results publications of the settlements research are important for further study of the Bronze Age history. This work is devoted to analysis of material obtained during excavations in 1952 under the leadership of Gryaznov M.P. at Andronovo settlement Slyapovo in the Upper Ob. Excavation materials are stored in the collections of the State Hermitage Museum, they are represented by a bone implements, bronze, stone, clay products. In this paper particular attention is aimed to the most massive category of finds — ceramic complex. Representative selection (451 samples) allowed to divide the complex in two groups: Andronovo (predominant) and Late Bronze. For Andronovo group was provided the analysis of the ornament and form of the vessel. The methodical base were works of Genning V.F., Rudkovsky I.V., Tkachev A.A. and Tkacheva N.A. It has been revealed 16 ornamental motives. Basically it was vertical herringbone, horizontal grooves and horizontal «herringbones», ranks of the pit depressions. Rarely encountered the lines, short diagonal lines, vertical zigzag and ornaments in geometric style (triangles, «ducks», meanders). The vessels decor was performed in various techniques of the ornament applying, but the most common was a smooth punching stamp, large and small comb. There were two main forms of the vessels from the settlement — cans and pots. Also were revealed the laws in the form of the vessels and ornaments correlation. On the base of the provided analysis were marked the features of the settlement dishes. Accounted ornamental schemes allowed to compare the Slyapovo site with another settlements of the Andronovo culture of the Upper Ob. Topographic data with the founded artifacts allowed to attribute the site to the temporary settlement type. Common features of the settlement Shlyapovo gave the possibility to date the complex within a broad framework of existence of the Andronovo culture in XV–XIII B.C.
Key words: the Upper Ob, the Andronovo culture, settlement, the Bronze Age, ceramics, border, ornamentation technique.
Ilyushin A.M., Onischenko S.S.
About results of research of the dwelling of nomads of the developed Middle Ages of Kuznetsk depression
Information on results of field researches of Kuznetsk complex arkheologo-ethnographic expedition of the dwelling 3 in an excavation No 5 on a complex of archaeological monuments of Toropovo-7 in the Kasminsky archaeological residential district in the territory of Kuznetsk Depression to Leninsk-Kuznetsk the region of the Kemerovo region is introduced into wide scientific circulation. Materials of this excavation are subjected to archaeological and zooarchaeological research. New information is urged to fill up a moneybox of archaeological sources on history and culture of the period of the developed Middle Ages of Kuznetsk Depression. The purpose of the present publication to describe results of excavation unique on a design and set of artifacts the dwelling and to analyse the archaeological and zooarchaeological materials revealed in it for definition of dating of object and a meat food allowance of his inhabitants. At research of the published materials descriptive, comparative and statistical methods of the analysis of material sources were used. The dug-out dwelling is characterized as the semi-dugout consisting of a land design and an earth ditch which could be used in the winter and function all the year round. By analogies to artifacts the studied dwelling was dated the period of the developed Middle Ages (the XI–XIV centuries AD) also it is referred to the shandinsky archaeological culture left by Turkic-speaking nomads of East Dasht-i-Kipchak in the territory of Kuznetsk Depression. On dwelling accessory to nomads results of the zooarchaeological analysis of osteological materials from economic holes 1 and 2 in the dwelling 3 among which testify the remains of horses (more than 80 %) prevail. On the basis of the received results of research the conclusion that the dwelling 3 in an excavation No 5 on a complex of archaeological monuments of Toropovo-7 structurally represents semi-earth premises about 34 m² is drawn, adapted for accommodation at the winter period of one family which was used in the XI–XIV centuries by carriers of Turkic nomadic cultural traditions at the heart of which daily food allowance there was a horse-flesh.
Key words: Kuznetsk Depression, monument, dwelling, artifacts, ceramics, figuration, zooarchaeological analysis of materials.
Society structure of early medieval Turks in Altai-Sayan region (on materials of funeral complexes)
The article concerns various aspects of social interpretation of funeral complexes of early medieval Turks (the 2nd half of I thousand AD). Results of the analysis of the sites which are dug out in Altai, Tuva and Minusinsk Depression are presented. Features of gender and age differentiation of early medieval Turkic society are characterized. Possibilities of modeling of nomadic society vertical structure are separately considered. The groups of burials showing heterogeneity of Turkic tribes of the Altai-Sayan region in the 2nd half of I thousand AD are allocated.
Key words: social structure, early medieval Turkic tribes, Altai-Sayan region, funeral complexes, gender and age differentiation, reconstruction.