VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII Y ╣ 1 (32) (2016)
Vasilyev S.V., Borutskaya S.B.
Paleoanthropology of the Upper Palaeolithic population of Laos (on materials of site Tam Hang)
Tam Hang was
opened in 1934 by Jacques Fromaget who worked at the Geological survey of
17 skulls were discovered by Fromage, but the Museum has only 10 whole skulls. Six skulls and postcranial skeletons belonged to six individuals. And in total 3 male and 4 female postcranial skeletons was studied osteologically. The obtained date of one skeleton from burial was 15,7▒0,8 ka. The population Tam Hang from was morphologically uniform according the angular morphometry of skulls. Craniologically men from Tam Hang were heterogeneous. One of them was similar to the sample from the Combe Capelle, another was close to the group of skulls from Pzedmosti. Characteristics of people from the Tam Hang were: a small body length, relatively elongated lower leg in male individuals and the elongated forearm in women that could be associated with adaptations to hot climatic conditions. The group was noted of the frequent occurrence of sacralization of last lumbar vertebra and so increasing of sacrum strength. Main pathologies associated with diseases of the teeth-jaw apparatus.
Key words: Laos, Paleolithic, angular morphometry of the skull, craniology, osteology, paleopathology.
Palaeopathology of sub-adults from Gonur-Depe (Turkmenistan)
The palaeopathological study of sub-adult sample comprising 215 individuals from Gonur-depe Bronze Age site (Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex, Turkmenistan) has shown predominance of dental diseases and indicators of anemia compared to other types of bone lesions. Low frequency of traces of infections, as well as absence of a single case of scurvy, rickets or trauma suggest the optimal living conditions of the population. The typical prevalence of different types of osseous pathology in the sample was probably driven by high population density and farming activities as the main factors of morbidity.
Key words: palaeopathology, sub-adults, Bronze Age, Gonur-depe, Turkmenistan.
Bioarchaeological approaches to study on traces of artificial of influence on the skull (on the example of populations Bronze Age and Early Iron Age from the Armenia)
The paper is an attempt to study the deformed skulls, representatives of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age from the territory of Armenia. The results of this study allow to assume, tump-line deformation may result from activities, such as carrying loads with a band across the parietal bones. Structural changes appearing in human bones during physical activity people were investigated in populations. The proposed method makes it possible to classify the occipital suprastructures. The occurrence of superstructures in the occipital bone has been attributed to physical activity and habitual motion such as lifting and transporting heavy loads. Used singly, loads were slung from the ends and the poles were balanced on the head or across both shoulders or on the one shoulder in the fore and aft position. Structural rearrangements skull bones and unintentional artificial deformation can be consi-dered as a unique phenomenon, allowing to reconstruct some aspects of economic life of ancient people.
Key words: Armenia, Bronze Age and Iron Age, occipital superstructure, tumpline deformation.