VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 2 (33) (2016)
Liskevich N.A., Masharipova A.H.
PROTECTIVE RITUALS IN THE CATTLE BREEDING PTACTICED BY KOMI PEOPLE OF LOWER PRITOBOL'E AND OMSK PRIIRTISH'E
The rituals for the protection of the cattle practiced by Komi people in Lower Pritobol'e and Omsk Priirtish'e are observed. The sources of the research are field data materials, obtained in the ethnographic expeditions of IPDN SB RAS in Tyumen and Omsk regions in the 2000s. Ways of magic defense of cattle (cows) are pointed out. The ceremonies were committed to the life changing moments — a purchase of cattle, moving cattle to a new home, the first pasture, fawning, getting ready for the first milking, some calendar holidays (Christmas, Epiphany, the feast of St. Blaise, Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday). The ways to influence the general well-being of cattle, to coax Domovoi (staichnyi: the one who lives in a shed), to protect and treat the evil eye and magic curse are shown. Typically, they were individual actions of owners, dedicated to a particular day or event. The main attributes of the actions for the magical protection of animals are animal-care objects, elements of a harness, belt or apron of the owners, elements of domestic stoves, grain, bread, salt, water, willow, mother-of-thyme, plants from worshiped places, pike teeth. In some cases, the rituals are accompanied by spells (prayers). The influence of Christian traditions predominates in the modern protective rituals.
Key words: Komi cattle breeding, protective and cleansing magic, Susedco, a magic curse and an evil eye of cattle.
Ivanova L.V., Gordienko A.V.
MULTICULTURAL SOURCES AND ANALOGIES OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM OF WOODEN ARCHITECTURE OF ZAURAL′E
The article is dedicated to the study of multicultural sources and analogies of the visual system of Russian wooden architecture of Zaural′e. The history of formation of traditions of wooden construction is overviewed. Peculiarities of volume, relief and hand carving are pointed out. Types of window casing mouldings, their structural basis and main decorative elements are analyzed. The visual motifs of geometrical, vegetal, anthropomorphic and ornithomorphic types of ornament of window casing mouldings are introduced. Historical and cultural ties of Zaural`e, which were reflected in the eclecticism of wooden architecture are described. S-shaped curves and heart-shaped figures, vortex rosaces, and vegetative ornament were actively used by carvers in the visual system of wooden architecture of Zaural′e in the late XIX — early XX centuries. The most widely distributed ornament in the regional architecture was the one of vegetable cruciform of plaited stems. Images of ancient Byzantine-Romanesque origin (paired birds, heraldic motifs, crowns) can be found in the house carving of Zaural′e. These elements can be related to the genesis of the Slavic culture, which is an integral part of the Orthodox Byzantine tradition. Manifestations of Baroque and Ñlassicism stylistic traits in wooden construction of the region are studied. Multicultural analogies are pointed out in the ornamental motifs of the visual system of wooden architecture. Traditions of folk regional architecture related to the decorative plasticity of the facades are generalized. An ornament is characterized as a historical source for the study of the formation of the cultural landscape. The eclecticism of the visual system of the Russian wooden regional architecture is connected to ethno-cultural interactions, the waves of colonization of Zaural′e. The article contains extensive illustrative material, which represents analogies in the decoration of the wooden housing construction and the archeological artifacts from ornitho-, anthropomorphic and floral ornaments.
Key words: historical and cultural ties of Zaural′e, wooden architecture, visual system, multicultural ornamental analogies, cultural landscape.
A MERMAID IN FOLK BELIEFS OF EAST SLAVIC PEOPLES IN WESTERN SIBERIA (PROSPECTS OF MAPPING THE LOCAL ASPECTS OF THE IMAGE)
Beliefs about mermaids, mythological characters, spirits in the female form, vary considerably across different regions of Russia. A mermaid is one of the most variative, polysemantic images of Slavic mythology. The beliefs about habitats of mermaids, their origin, appearance, features, abilities, specific occupations, attitudes to people are ambiguous. Some local features of the beliefs in mermaids among Russian, Ukrainian and Bielorussian population in Western Siberia have been identified on the basis of the field ethnographic materials. These differences are primarily related to the regions of origin of the ancestors of the Siberians, to places where their great-grandparents (Siberian long-term residents, or immigrants from different regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus) were born. The continuity of traditional culture among the villagers contributed to the preservation of folk beliefs, characteristic of a particular region. Traditional beliefs of old-timers (descendants of the Russian immigrants of the end of XVII — beginning of XVIII centuries) in mermaids were lost or heavily modified. On the other hand, Siberian «new settlers» (descendants of the immigrants of the end of XIX — beginning of XX centuries) remember a lot of stories about mermaids and meeting them. The brightest and diverse stories of oral non fairy-tale prose have been recorded according to the information provided by Siberian Ukrainians. The mermaids in Siberian beliefs lost their ability to affect the harvest (in contrast to the beliefs of the population of western and southern regions of European Russia). In Western Siberia the mermaids are believed to inhabit the ponds, but during a mermaid week they can be found in the forest, field, in the garden or in the Russian sauna. The appearance of the mermaids differs significantly: they can be attractive or terrifying. Natural and geographical factors, and landscape features also influenced indirectly the occurrence of stories about mermaids and variants of development of their images. The use of mapping method for data processing of field ethnographic materials lets us most fully reproduce the picture of localization of mythological concepts, displaying specificities of various regional features of the mermaid image: its appearance, characteristics, functions, folk stories.
Key words: Slavic mythology, folk beliefs, mermaids, seasonal rituals, regional specificity, Western Siberia, ethnographic field materials.
THE SPECIFICS OF CUTTING AND DECORATIONS OF THE GUARDIANS SPIRIT CAPS OF THE NORTHERN MANSI
The article deals with a study
and classification of guardian spirit caps found in Mansi sacred places. The
study aims to conduct a comparative and typological analysis of the caps and to
reveal special features of their cutting and decorations. The research is based
on data of the author’s own fieldwork records (collected during several
expedition trips to the communities of Northern Mansi living along the Northern
Sosva and Lyapin rivers) and on published ethnographic sources. In the course of
the expeditions, the author made descriptions of 34 caps, 21 of them were parts
of guardian spirit vestments, 10 were gifts to the guardian spirits and 3 were
tailor-made. It is pointed out that the caps are one of the principal and
necessary attributes of the male guardian spirits of Northern Mansi. According
to Northern Mansi mythology, caps are part of the image and an indispensable
attribute of clothes of many Mansi supreme deities, including Mir-Susne-Hum,
Kuly-Otir, Samsaj-oyka, etc. The caps are included in the costume kits of the
figures of the guardian spirits that are kept in sacred places; they are also a
part of the vestments of those people who perform a role of the guardian spirits
on the Bear festival. There are two types of the guardian spirit caps:
made of fur and of woolen cloth. The caps made out of woolen cloth are the most
common. Depending on the shape of the crown, the caps can be divided into three
main groups: cone-shaped, semi-spherical and trapezoidal. Each of these groups
is represented by several variations which differ in quantity and shape of
details of their cutting. It was noted that the shape, cutting of caps and
decoration of a cap are not related to the duties of the corresponding a
guardian spirit. Today there is no evidence of use of the fur caps in the Mansi
sacred places, though there are many references to their previous use as a
head-dress of the guardian spirits in ethnographic sources. Obviously, fur caps,
as well as fur-trimmed woolen caps, indicated high social status of their
Key words: Mansi, caps, clothes, costume, guardian spirits, sacred places, cutting, fabric, fur, woolen cloth, typological analysis, Northern Sosva river, Lyapin river, images of deities, ethnographic research, Mir-Susne-Hum, Kuly-Otir, Samsaj-oyka.
NATIVE ELITE OF BEREZOVSKY DISTRICT THROUGH THE PAINTINGS AND PHOTOS
The paintings and photos, perceived not as a static image, but as a visual text, create a specific informative field that allows us to visualize the character and his or her epoch. Since 19th century a «portrait» (a painting, a photo), as well as a manner of working (painting, taking photos) had been becoming a sign of high status for the native elite. An ethnopolitical aspect of visual representations of Ostyako-Vogulsky and Samoyed «lords» and foremen of Berezovsky district is manifested through a certain rulemaking of subjects (personal and group graded images, bear skin oath, an Obdorskaya Fair, etc.), the choice of clothes (dressing up), the presence of power symbols and attributes (patents and other tzar gifts).
Key words: visual text (paintings, photography), native (Ostyak, Samoyed) elite, «lords», foreman, symbols and attributes of power, Berezovsky district