VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 3 (34) (2016)
Kovaleva V.T., Zyryanova S.Y.
THE PROBLEM OF INTERPRETATION OF THE BOBORYKINO CULTURE IN THE MIDDLE TRANS-URALS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE LATEST DISCOVERIES
The article deals with debating questions regarding research of the Boborykino archaeological culture. It gives a brief overview of historiography and characteristics of a unique Neolithic phenomenon of North Eurasia. The basis of sources for research of the Boborykino culture consists of more than 50 settlements in the Middle Trans-Urals. The paper emphasizes originalities of the Boborykino culture in pottery technology and typology. Boborykino pottery differs from other Neolithic Ural complexes. Similar pottery and objects for worship, as well as some peculiarities in ceramic production technology, have been found in Neolithic complexes of North Mesopotamia. Therefore, we may conclude that the formation of the Boborykino culture is the result of migration. The main features of the Boborykino culture remained almost untouched for more than one thousand years. It is extremely difficult to trace the internal dynamics of the Boborykino culture and its contacts with indigenous population. All this leads to the conclusion that the Boborykino culture is conservative by nature.
Over the last years new data were excavated in North Kazakhstan and Baraba forest-steppe region (Autodrome 2/2, Borly). New settlements are located outside of the main Boborykino cultural area. However, their material culture has significant typological similarity with the sites of the main Boborykino culture area. That is why we can assume that their populations have common origin from the Near East and we can determine the direction of migration paths. Migrants occupied vacant lands between indigenous settlements. Peaceful colonization of vast territories led to the discrete nature of cultural genesis.
The idea of the genesis of culture is connected to the understanding of culture. Ornamental compositions of ceramics and objects for worship become a source of interpretation of the Boborykino culture. The ornaments are treated as texts. Transcript of the ornaments is based on the analysis of geographical conditions, form of economy, social relations. The semantics of ornaments is revealed by the context. In this case, it is more important than the text. The main topics of the ornament reflect the ideas of water, rain, earth, grain and serpents, and give ground to associate them with the cult of fertility.
New results of carbon analysis of Boborykino antiquities confirmed the proposed earlier dating of the culture within the end of the V — the end of the IV millennium BC.
Key words: Middle Trans-Urals, Boborykino culture, late Neolithic, migration, colonization, homogeneity.
Iudina E.A., Tonkushina M.O., Kulesh N.A., Ostroushko A.A.
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL OCHRE: METHOD AND POSSIBILITIES OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY (based on materials of Neolithic and Aeneolithic sites of the Middle Trans-Urals and Western Siberia)
The article is dedicated to methodological aspects of the elemental analysis (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) of a natural mineral pigment — ochre. We chose oxide ochre obtained from the Neolithic and Aeneolithic sites of the taiga zone of Western Siberia and the Middle Urals (the end of VI — III millennium BC) as a source base. The questions of selection and preparation of archaeological samples, and of interpretive capabilities of the chosen approach are discussed in the article.
Key words: oxide ochre, natural mineral pigments, Neolithic Age, Aeneolithic Age, Western Siberia, Middle Trans-Urals, elemental analysis, XRF spectroscopy.
Serikov Yu.Â., Vizgalov G.P., Konovalenko M.V.
STONE ARTEFACTS FROM STADUHINO JAIL ON NIZHNYAYA KOLYMA (THE SAKHA REPUBLIC (YAKUTIA))
In the article we analyse a complex of stone tools from a settlement of the Russians of XVII–XVIII centuries. Stone scrapers are the most interesting tools from that complex. Trosological analysis of scrapers shows that a special technology of splitting of gravel-stones and manufacturing of scrapers for initial processing of fells existed in the settlement. The scrapers were used for removing inner side of fell.
Key words: stone scrapers, fishing plummets, grinding stones, secondary use of ancient artefacts.