VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (35) (2016)
Kufterin V.V., Nechvaloda A.I.
BIOANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE SRUBNO-ALAKUL MOUND AT SELIVANOVKA II CEMETERY (SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS)
The article presents some results of an anthropological study of a skeletal sample (19 individuals) from the excavation of the mound 1 Selivanovka II cemetery (Southern Trans-Urals), performed in 2000. Cultural identity of this burial place is defined as mixed Srubno-Alakul with Alakul dominance. There are no tombs of mature and senile individuals. In double tombs adult (and perhaps sub-adult) individuals of different sexes are buried. Sub-adult subgroup demonstrates a lag in the rate of longitudinal growth from the modern standards. The individual metrics of adult individuals are similar. In body proportions, the adults are close to the populations of the «steppe» morphological type, on the one hand, and to the Chalcolithic — Bronze Age groups of Central Asia, on the other. The latter is manifested in elongation of tibias in some skeletons from Selivanovka. Excessive frequency of some epigenetic markers may indicate close relationship of the buried individuals.
Key words: bioanthropology, Srubno-Alakul population, Selivanovka II cemetery, Bronze Age, Sou-thern Trans-Urals.
Bravina R.I., Dyakonov V.M., Nikolaev E.N., Petrov D.M., Syrovatskiy V.V., Bagashev A.N., Poshekhonova O.E., Slepchenko S.M., Razhev D.I., Alexeeva E.A., Zubova A.V., Kuzmin Ya.V.
COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE EARLY YAKUT SERGELYAKH BURIAL OF THE XV — BEGINNING OF THE XVI CENTURIES
The paper presents a comprehensive study of graves which relate to rare burial sites of the early stage of ethnic history of the Yakuts. The burial belongs to an equestrian warrior. It is confirmed by the findings of the horse harness and fragments of weapons, including a part of a Central Asian composite bow which is unique to the Yakuts, arrowheads and a blade of palma (Siberian pole weapon). The vertebral pathologies and morphological features of femurs also point at riding as a usual way of transportation. Multiple injuries of bones indicate to an aggressive lifestyle. The death of the man was caused by a penetrating injury of the head with a bladed weapon. Craniological characteristics of the man correspond to the South Siberian populations characterized by a combination of Caucasoid and Mongoloid features. In this case, the latter prevails. The ritual funerary complexes correspond to the Ust-Talkin culture, which alongside with cranial features of the man enable us to associate Sergelyakh burial with Turkic part of the Sakha people, which is epically correlated with the legendary Elley Bootur.
Key words: Sergelyakh burial, Ust-Talkin culture, the Yakuts, craniometry, skull, physical type, paleopathology, population.
Poshekhonova O.E., Zubova A.V., Sleptsova A.V.
CRANIOLOGY AND ODONTOLOGY OF THE EARLY MEDIEVAL POPULATION ALONGSIDE THE TOBOL RIVER, BASED ON USTYUG-1 BURIAL GROUND
The article presents the results of craniological and odontological research based on a group of Ustyug-1 burial ground. The goal of the research is to determine genesis of the Bakal population from the Tobol river region of the Great Migration time. Morphology of the group was compared with the available data on the populations of the Early Iron Age, Early and High Middle Ages of this and adjacent regions. Their biological connection was determined. It was established that a dominant component in the Bakal population is genetically associated with Western Siberian population of the Early Iron Age. It is found out that by the IV–VI centuries AD the ancient multicomponent substrate of the Bakal group almost did not contain Caucasian morphological type. It was present only as a small admixture. The main component is the West Siberian short-faced Mongoloid complex. By the IX–XIII centuries, that component completely dominated in the paleopopulation structure. But a mixed population with Central Asian admixture came from the East in the Turkic period. A small proportion of this South Siberian morphological type is observed in the later Bakal groups. Superstrata component of Kushnarenkovo, which was identified basing on the archaeological materials, is not observed in the anthropological structure of the Bakal population. Odontology data gives a similar conclusion. A complex of odontology traits suggests heterogeneity of the group. Besides, Sargatka component was transformed under the influence of migration from the Eastern part of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia and Central Asia. Sargatka component in the Bakal group looks much more indistinct, compared with the population of the Baraba forest-steppe. Markers of the Southern gracile type almost disappear, being replaced by Western Siberian complex.
Key words: West Siberia, the Early Middle Ages, paleoanthropology, craniology, odontology, Bakal archaeological culture.