Sataeva L.V., Sataev R.M.


The article is aimed to clarify the role of woody plants in the life of the ancient population of Gonur-Depe (Turkmenistan), the proto-urban center of Ancient Margiana, which was located in the South-Eastern Karakum (Turkmenistan) and belonged to the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAK). Remains of monumental architecture (a Kremlin with a central palace and a temple complex, surrounded by robust defensive walls with towers) and an adjacent unfortified «suburb» were found in the settlement. According to the radiocarbon datings, the settlement functioned in the time period of 2500 to 1500 years BC. ̉he results of our research show that the population of Gonur Depe widely used wood and wood products. Microscopic analysis of wood showed that saxaul (Saxaul sp.) was used as main fuel. Shrubby types of thistle (Salsola sp.), tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), camel-thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi) were not so widely used. The coal collected in the territory of the Palace-temple complex belongs to tamarisk, saxaul, Calligonum, poplar (Populus sp.), maple (Acer turcomanicum), Spireantus Shrenk's (Spiraeanthus schrenkianus). Poplar and willow (Salix sp.) were used for construction purposes. Pro-ducts of different function (wagon wheels, tools, jewelry) were made of elm (Ulmus sp.), maple (Acer sp.), willow (Salix sp.), ash (Fraxinus sp.), leather smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), exochorda (Exochorda sp.), chaste tree (Vitex sp.). A part of the wood and/or wood products were received from the outside, which again confirms the existence of well-established trade contacts of the inhabitants of Gonur with neighboring regions which were situated at different distances from it.

Key words: archaeobotanical research, use of woody plants, Ancient Margiana, Gonur-Depe.


Nomokonova T.Yu. , Losey R. J., Tupakhina O.S., Tupakhin D.S.

SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS of population of the Lower Ob river basin during the Eneolithic (based on faunal remains of the settlement of GornIy Samotnel-1)

This article is dedicated to the analysis of faunal remains found at the Eneolithic settlement of Gorniy Samotnel-1. This habitation site has a modeled age spanning from 3060 to 2920 cal. BC, firmly within the Middle Holocene. This site is located on the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region on the shore of the Ob’ River. The paper considers the identification of faunal remains from the site, their relative abundances, bone modification (such as natural erosion, carnivore gnawing, butchering traces, and tool making), as well as proportions of skeletal elements and reconstruction of age at death of some individuals. The resulting data demonstrate relatively broad use of natural resources by the inhabitants of Gorniy Samotnel-1 during the Eneolithic, despite a relatively small size of the analyzed assemblage. The results of species identification and other faunal analyses are discussed in association with the rest of the archaeological context. In addition, the article includes information on the reconstruction of paleodiet based on the stable isotope analyses of the residues of pottery vessels at the site. Finally we introduce the zoomorphic images at the site, including possible depictions of elk and waterfowl, which were found in a direct association with the site’s faunal remains.

Key words: zooarchaeology, Eneolithic, faunal remains, settlement of Gorniy Samotnel-1, subsistence patterns, taphonomy, reindeer, fishing.