VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 3 (38) (2017)
TECHNOLOGY OF POTTERY PRODUCTION AMONG THE CHERCASKUL CULTURE POPULATION IN THE LOWER TOBOL BASIN (ON THE MATERIALS OF THE SETTLEMENT OF KHRIPUNOVSKOYE 1)
The article presents the results of technical and technological analysis regarding a pottery complex of the Cherkaskul culture from the settlement of Khripunovskoye 1 located in the forest-steppe area of the Tobol River basin. The analysis is made within the framework of historical and cultural approach and the structure of the pottery industry, developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The conducted research revealed heterogeneity of the traditions that existed among Cherkaskul potters of the settlement Khripunovskoye 1. The potters used two types of soft raw material: clays and silty clays. Analysis of the moulding masses showed a variety of artificial impurities, which were used by the potters. Chamotte used with various organic impurities was a dominant tradition, but also they used talc, crushed quartz, calcined bone, crushed river moluscan shells. The construction of «seed-bodies» of the vessels was manufactured in accordance with the bottom-capacitive program. The vessels were made by the method of sculptural modeling on a plane and with the help of a form-basis. The «seed-bodies» and the hollow bodies of the vessels were constructed using patches. The surface treatment of the ceramics was carried out mostly by a simple method of smoothing with hard tools, after which the walls of the vessels were polished. The vessels were fired in simple hearths. Basing on the data obtained and comparing them with information from other territories, it is possible to say that groups of the Cherkaskul population in the Lower Tobol region appeared as a result of their migrations, most likely from the territories associated with the Ural region.
Key words: Lower Tobol basin, the settlement of Khripunovskoye 1, the Chercaskul culture, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation.
Orfinskaya O.V., Tolmacheva E.G., Belova G.A.
LATE ANTIQUE TEXTILES FROM THE GRAVE 213 (DEIR AL-BANAT, FAYUM, ARE)
This paper is aimed to study Egyptian textiles from the grave 213 dated to 5–7 AD that belongs to the Deir al-Banat necropolis (Fayum). These textile finds are published for the first time which would extend our know-ledge on Egyptian Late Antique burial custom and would further enrich our understanding of the function that textiles had in Egyptian funeral practice. Moreover, the data from this burial would help us to study Egyptian weaving technologies of that time. The textile finds from the grave 213/1 are rather diverse. The male body from the grave was stretched out on its back with the head towards the west. It was dressed in three wool and one (closest to the body) linen tunics and wrapped in the fourth wool tunic. A rectangular linen cloth covered the face of the deceased. The head was resting on a pillow, under which an unfinished wool rectangular textile was found. A similar pillow was placed at the foot of the man. Fourteen textiles of different quality were used to wrap the body. Twelve of them were of a poor quality («wrappings» or «coarse funeral shrouds»). Two other textiles from the upper layer of the «wrappings» (probably, reused furnishing textiles) quite differed from the ordinary coarse shrouds. There are different groups of textiles: reused furnishing textiles, coarse funeral shrouds, tunics. Coarse shrouds with simple decorations were woven presumably on a vertical loom with two beams. This kind of loom was rather primitive and could have been used in small workshops specializing in production of large number of low quality textiles for burial needs. The woven-to-shape three-piece tunics and furnishings were not produced on the same loom as the coarse shrouds. Both one-piece and three-piece tunics have starting/finishing borders and were attached to a wooden bar or string but not simply looped around the beam. All these objects were rather heavy and demanded certain skills from a weaver. Besides large and complicated looms, Egyptian weavers could have probably used rather small and simple devices such as a band loom with a rigid heddle. Textiles of different functions were used in burial practice. Among them were both textiles specially intended for burial (coarse funeral shrouds) and reused lifetime items (tunics, furnishing textiles). From other archaeological sources, it is known that Egyptians of Late Antiquity did not have special garments for funeral. The economic context of the textiles from the grave 213 is rather unclear. Some of the objects could have been produced in small household workshops, the others demand professional skills.
Key words: Late Antique Egyptian textiles, burial custom, textile technologies, «Coptic textiles».
Berlina S.V., Kostomarov V.M., Rafikova T.N., Novikov I.K., Tkachev À.À.
THE MEDIEVAL SETTLEMENT OF ISETSKOIE 2 IN THE ISET RIVER BASIN
The article deals with materials of excavations at Isetskoie 2, an unfortified settlement of the Middle Ages, located in the Lower Iset River basin. The published materials are important due to poor previous study of unfortified settlements of the Bakal culture. The place is single-layered which makes it a valuable source for reconstruc-ting house-building traditions and material culture of the Medieval population of the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals. A representative series of radiocarbon dates allows us to refresh a problem of chronology of the Medieval antiquities of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve, indicating that the Bakal culture functioned throughout the Early and High Middle Ages. Fifteen buildings were studied during excavations at the settlement, three types of buil-dings were distinguished: above-ground buildings with log-framed or light-framed walls and deepened framed and pillared buildings. Dwellings erected in log technique were found at a site of the Bakal culture for the first time. Among the buildings, both temporary seasonal dwellings and outbuildings are singled out. The ceramic material of the settlement is represented by vessels of the Bakal culture, separate fragments of Kushnarenkovo dishes which often accompany the Bakal complexes in the territory of Western Siberia, are found as well. Statistical analysis of the ceramic material and a series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the settlement functioned for a long period of time, in the III–XII centuries AD. A lack of system in arrangement of the buildings, weak saturation of the cultural layer, absence of fireplaces inside the buildings, characteristics of the inventory allow us to conclude that the settlement was seasonal.
Key words: Middle Ages, forest-steppe Trans-Urals, the Bakal culture, dwellings, ceramics, chronology.
Tataurov S.F., Tikhonov S.S.
SPECIFICS OF PLANIGRAPHY ÀND IMPROVEMENT OF A SIBERIAN TOWN IN XVI–XVIII CENTURIES
The results of 2007–2016 archaeological excavations of Tara and historical materials on the town planigraphy in the period under consideration gave birth to this work. The study made it possible to reconstruct the history of the territorial development of the town from its foundation until the adoption of an unified urban plan in 1775. The survey allowed to identify the principles of foundation and development of a Siberian Russian city at the end of XVII–XVIII centuries. During the work, we tried to determine the importance of such factors as defenses, availability of transit routes, fire safety, etc. for the development. In the course of excavations at Tara fortress, archaeologists from the Omsk Branch of Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS excavated about 1500 m2 of the cultural stratum with a capacity of 2 m and more. We received information about different aspects of the culture of Tara population at the end of the XVI–XVIII centuries, including about the fortress planigraphy and conditions of its streets. Furthermore, considering the geographical features of the location of Tara stronghold, the authors have studied the roads leading to it. The article presents the results of these works considering the roads leading to Tara fortress from different angles, transitions across the rivers that surrounded it, Tara streets, transformation of planigraphy of the fortress in the late XVIII century. Tara fortress was built with the use of natural barriers. From the West, it was well protected by a marsh and a river. From the East, the road to the castle was complicated by the Irtysh floodplain and the Arkarna River's tributaries. There were only three roads to get to the city, which were covered by the towers of the fortress. Nowadays, these roads turned into streets and are used to travel more often than others located between them. By the end of the XVIII century, Tara had gradually become one of the most comfortable and clean town in Siberia. The town dealt with fires, and arrangements for drainage of wetlands solved the problem of mud at Tara streets. In general, the system of roads leading to Tara started to develop since the fortress was established, correct geometric planigraphy of the town began to take shape in the second half of the eighteenth century, taking into account the existing road. At the same time, indiscriminate housing development disappeared and improvement of the streets began.
Key words: archaeology of Russian Western Siberia, Tara fortress, spatial archaeology, transport, planigraphy.
ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF STUDYING CORRESPONDENCE OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS (A LETTER FROM N.N. BORTVIN TO K.V. SALNIKOV)
The paper contains the analysis of a letter of archeologist N.N. Bortvin to archaeologist K.V. Salnikov. The text is filled with precious information on the history of archaeology in the Urals and in the Trans-Urals in the 1920–1930th years, and information about known archaeological sites of the Southern Urals and Trans-Urals.
Key words: Southern Urals, Trans-Urals, history of Ural archaeology, archaeological sites, museums of the Urals.