BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 2 (1999)
Zakh V. A.
On Certain Methods of Studying Ancient West Siberian Ceramics
Ceramics, considered in particular as a man-made silicate, is one of the most informative sources under studying ancient societies. Various methods of its investigation are available. Ànalysis of pottery specimen obtained from neolithic settlements of the Tobol basin, using both a physical method and a mass spectrometer, would reveal quite a big amount (8–14 %) of carbon (artificially added organic matter) in a ceramic mass. The author suggests an idea of its possible use as an initial substance in radiocarbon dating by laser spectrometry.
Volkov Å. N.
On The Problem of a Periodic Division of the Neolithic in the Middle Trans-Urals
The paper deals with a topical question in the West Siberian archaeology, i.e. a periodic division of the Neolithic in the Middle Trans-Urals. The author considers the existing conceptions on origins and evolution of the neolithic cultures within the said region proposing promising ways to solve most controversial aspects of the problem. He points to an important role of migrations both in forming early neolithic complexes and in making cultural traditions of the Late Neolithic time.
Zakh V. A., Fomina E. A.
On the Question of the Origins of the Andreevskoye Culture
The Àndreevskoye culture refers to most controversial cultures in the Neolithic-Eneolithic of Trans-Urals. Limitation of its areal by the borders of the Lower Tobol basin and a short period of existence, as well as similarity between pottery traditions of the Andreevskoye culture and complexes of East European Neolithic would permit some researchers to introduce a hypothesis of its origins due to migration process. The paper represents the latest materials and, as a probable option, a version of genesis of the said culture on the basis of a local component which might be related to Finnish-lingual population being a fragment of initially united Finnish-Ugrian entity which destruction preceded formation of late neolithic cultures in West Siberia represented by pottery with comb and pit-and-comb patterns.
Tkachev À. À.
Specific Features of yhe Nurtaj Complexes in Central Kazakhstan
The author describes a specific group of settlements and burial grounds singled out into the Nurtaj Complex of the Bronze Age in Central Kazakhstan. He considers distinctive features of the settlements’ dwelling constructions and lay-out as well as pottery and other goods. A comparative analysis with the antiquities of Petrovka type in North Kazakhastan has been executed. It has been pointed out that the Sintashta-Petrovka and Nurtaj antiquities refer to same Early Alakul cultural-chronological stage possessing a common sub-stratum, i.e. the steppe Eneolithic and Early Bronze cultures.
Degtyareva A. D.
Metal in Kondrashkino Mound of the Bronze Age
The author describes metal articles obtained from Êîndrashkino mound of the Bronze Age on the territory of the Middle Don basin from view point of typology, ñîmposition and micro-structural analysis. She substantiates an idea of imported nature of weapon articles and tools and also relates a burial type in the said mound to Petrovka-Sintashta and Potapovka group of sites.
Tkacheva N. À.
Dynamics and Type of Development of the Bronze Age Settlement Complexes in the Upper Irtyish Basin
Basing on materials of field investigations of the 1990s supplemented by the materials of the earlier published sites, the author traces through dynamics of settlement complexes located in the Upper Irtyish basin. She considers the following: nature of house-building typical of the Andronovo tribes within the said region; tendency of house-building development: from cabins made of branches and straw to big semi-dug-outs and framing dwelling-houses of the Late Bronze Age; size transformation of settlements and dwellings related with economic development: from homestead pastoral cattlebreeding to pasturing cattlebreeding, and from the latter to nomadic one.
Matveev À.V., Chikunova I. Yu.
Settlement of Botniki 1v on the Lower Isset-River
The article introduces into reasearch circulation materials regarding settlement of Botniki 1v located down the lower stream of the Isset-river in the south of Tyumen oblast. The major complex of the said site is related with the Pakhomovka archaeological culture of the Late Bronze Age (late quarter of the second millennium B.C.).
Matveeva N. P.
regarding population of the Forest-Steppe Belt of the Ob Basin in the Early Iron
(on the basis of archaeological data)
The author considers division into sex-and-age groups in a society of the Kamenka culture bearers inhabiting the forest-steppe belt of the Ob basin (the Early Iron Age). The investigation has been executed on the basis of the data obtained from 29 burial grounds and 1227 burials, with division into two chronological stages. Analysis of the dating base involved 42 most informative and representative criteria using STATISTICA information package. As a base of the said package, the following anthropological gradation has been laid: infantilis-1; infantilis-2; juvenilis (17–25 years of age); adultus (26–35); maturus (36–55); senilis (56–70).
In the 5th–4th centuries B.C., one can observe a more levelled social status of the sexes to be probably accompanied by patrilineal traditions but without violation of women’s rights. In the 3rd–1st centuries B.C. strengthening of a patriarchal tendency has been revealed. Judging by simplified rites, children were not treated as full members of the society. Adolescents, most probably at 12–13 years of age, were put to initiation and were considered as adults of a lower rank. Early marriages could take place. Adult and mature men and women had the highest status (to be confirmed by bigger burial chambers, presence of ornaments and articles of luxury as well as bigger amount of grave goods). Women, except the young ones, performed ritual functions. Old men were not paid particular social honour or priviliges (to be confirmed by little amount of grave goods and food, a lower share of burials located in the centre of the mounds compared with the other groups). Lack of men’s senile burials in the Bijsky period as well as their sporadic character in the Beryozovsky period draw to an assumption of an existing practice of mortification of men at the turn of 55–60 years of age. At the same time, evaluation of a role played by old women remained high until the very death due to their preserving teaching and religious functions, while men, after their losing strength and deftness required for war and labour, were regarded as a burden.
Brusnitsina A. G.
An Early Mediaeval Burial Ground in Salekhard Area
Mogilnikov V. A.
Mounds with Adobe Brickwork in the South of West Siberia
The author considers materials of mounds
with adobe brickwork obtained from burial grounds of north-western Kulunda (Altaj
kraj), Zaozernaya, Topolnoye I, II and others. Building of upper-grave
constructions made of adobe was not typical of aboriginal population of the
steppe and forest-steppe belts of West Siberia and was introduced in the late 9th–10th
centuries A.D. by the Turk-lingual nomadic people, most likely by Kimaks, from
Kazakhstan — in all probability from the areas neighbouring the Syir-Darya.