BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 2 (1999)
Craniological Type of the Pelyim Mansi
author analyses a craniological set collected by him in the neighbourhood of the
former Lyamyapaul village located in the Ivdel district of Sverdlovsk oblast.
Following ethno-historical and linguistic data, the skulls from Lyamyapaul
correspond to the Pelyim sub-group of the West Mansi. Their study showed that in
the anthropological ñîmposition
of the West Mansi a Eurasian component in two variations is present. A component
within a women’s group is genetically related with the Finno-Perm peoples of
East Europe; a component within a men’s group has a different origin and is
analogous to craniological materials characterizing a racial type of the
population inhabiting the forest-steppe belts of West Siberia in the Early Iron
Age. Systematically, the West Mansi represent a Ugrian variation of the Urals
anthropological type of West Siberian race.
38 men’s and 16 women’s skulls obtained from the burials
of Maslyakha 1 and 2 (Krutikha district, Altaj kraj) burial grounds have been
investigated. The latter have been referred to the Kamenka archaeological
culture and dated to the 3rd–1st centuries Â.Ñ.
Ànalysis of the craniological materials showed that in
the said chronological period the territory of North Altaj was inhabited by the
Eurasian population in which a Mongoloid admixture could be traced. The Eurasian
stratum is related to the proto-European type to be present in the Andronovo
population of the Bronze Age. The Ìîngoloid admixture
is heterogenous: one of its parts is of the Central Asian origin while the other
is of the forest West Siberian origin. Following ethnogenetic relations, one can
trace relationship of the Kamenka culture population with the Saks as well as
with bearers of the Sargatka culture and Savromatae-Sarmatian groups.
The author publishes paleo-demographic
calculations on the data of burial grounds belonging to Sargatka culture of the
forest-steppe zone of West Siberia (the Early Iron Age). She uses materials on
43 necropolis and 705 individuals grouped into two chronological stages: 5th–3rd
centuries B.C. è
2nd century B.C. — 4th–5th centuries A.D.
Expected life-duration for individuals reached a grown-up age is 16,5 years.
Masculinization index equals to 1,3–1,4. An average mortal age for grown-ups in
the earlier chronological stage is, for men, 36 years of age, in the later
chronological stage — 36,5 years of age; for women, respectively, 32,9 and 34,5
years of age. As quite probable are patriarchal relations with survivals of a
group marriage (without polygenism) and more comfortable social life conditions
for men. Due to absence of mortal peaks in adolescent and young age for women,
one can assume lack of practice of early marriages and childbirths. Beginning of
a reproductive period refers to 16–17 years of age. Women’s mortality during a
reproductive period (17–35 years of age) is generally not higher than that of
men’s which points out to a high share of men’s deaths from mutilations and
wounds conditioned by cattlebreeding way of life and permanent wars.
Paleonthological observations point out to high physical loads on joints and
spine among the people of the Sargatka culture starting from the adolescent age
which is connected with horse-riding as well as regular stresses and
malnutrition among the representatives of all age and social groups.