BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 3 (22) (2013)
Vinogradov N.B., Degtyareva A.D., Kuz’minykh S.V.
Metallurgy and metalwork in the life of inhabitants from a fortified settlement of Ustje 1
Subject to publication being data obtained under investigation of a fortified settlement of Ustje 1 at the turn of III–II millennium B.C., connected with metal industry. Basing on a morphological-and-typological investigation of non-ferrous inventory, as well as the results of atomic-emission spectrometric, spectral and metallographic analyses, the authors undertook a cultural identification of the Sintashta and Petrovka metal. The integration of analytical findings allowed clearly correlating chemical and metallurgical groups (alloys) and technological schemes in manufacturing of the non-ferrous inventory. The articles within groups of «pure» copper, tin bronze and, partly, tin-and-arsenic bronze, associated by the authors with the Petrovka metal industry, were produced in accordance with traditional schemes typical of the Petrovka technological processes. The objects made of low alloyed arsenic bronze were manufactured in accordance with schemes typical of the Sintashta metal industry. The data on the artefacts obtained under investigation of the cultural layer of the site connected with metal industry testify to a particularly significant role of metallurgy and metalwork in the life of its inhabitants.
Bronze Age, South Trans Urals, metal industry, settlement of Ustje 1, morphology of metal, compositional analysis of copper and bronzes, metallographic analysis.
A chemical-and-metallurgical description regarding metal of the Alakul culture from the Middle Low Tobol basin
The article is devoted to investigation of chemical composition regarding non-ferrous metal of the Alakul culture following materials of settlements and burial places from the Low Tobol basin of the Bronze Age. Subject to identification being chemical-and-metallurgical groups typical for the Alakul metal industry with a group of tin bronzes (54,7 %) being the main one. The author traces correlation between a type of product and raw materials used for its manufacture, identifying a metallurgical centre functioning in the Petrovka time and developed owing to the Alakul craftsmen who partly adopted traditions of the Petrovka metalwork.
The Alakul culture, Low Tobol basin, Bronze Age, metalwork, chemical-and-metallurgical groups, metallurgical centre.
Zimina O.Yu., Ilyushina V.V.
Pottery of the Barkhatovo culture from the subtaiga Low Tobol basin
The article is devoted to complexes of the Barkhatovo culture from the subtaiga zone of the Low Tobol basin. Basing on a statistical analysis of the pottery ornamentation, the authors came out with a suggestion on a specific look of the Barkhatovo culture pottery from the sites of the said region. It is connected with influence of the Suzgun culture, manifesting not only in materials of the mixed Suzgun-and-Barkhatovo site of Cheganovo 3, but also in the «typically» Barkhatovo complexes of Chechkino 4, Ìostovoye 1, and Cheryomukhovy Kust. Resulting from a technical-and-technological analysis of the pottery from the settlements of Chechkino 4, Ìostovoye 1, and Cheryomukhovy Kust, subject to a description being traditions of selection and preparation of the initial plastic raw material, making of molding compound, pots molding, surface treatment of articles, and kilning.
Low Tobol basin, the Barkhatovo culture, pottery, manufacturing technique, ornamentation.
Zakh V.A., Tsembal’uk S.I.
Complexes of the Early Iron Age and Early Middle Ages regarding a fortified settlement of Kalachik 1 in the Low Tobol basin
The paper quotes investigation results regarding a multi-layer fortified settlement of Kalachik 1 from the subtaiga zone of the Low Tobol basin. The earliest few findings on the territory of the site are dated from the Early Iron Age. In the Late Bronze Time here on the cape there was a burial ground of the Barkhatovo culture. The main complexes of the fortified settlement are represented by materials of the Early Iron Age left by the population residing here in VII–III cc. B.C. and in the early Middle Ages when the bearers of the Bakal culture managed to improve defensive constructions of the settlement.
Òhe Low Tobol basin, the Barkhatovo culture, «forest» Baitovo complexes, the Gorokhovo and Sargatka cultures, the Early Middle Ages, the Bakal culture.
Matveeva N.P., Kobeleva L.S.
On the question of the initial components of the Early Middle Ages cultural genesis regarding forest-and-steppe Trans Urals (following pottery investigation data)
The article considers questions of cultural genesis in the forest-and-steppe zone of the Urals and Trans Urals, following data of technological analysis regarding pottery from burial places of Kozlov Mys-2 and Ustyug-1 of IV‒V cc. Following shapes and ornamentation of the pottery, subject to identification being 4 typological groups: the Sargatka, Karym, Bakal and «pseudo-Kushnarenkovo». Following composition of the molding compound, molding methods and surface treatment, one could trace two pottery traditions: local and foreign. The authors come to a conclusion on the Sargatka technological heritage in the Bakal pottery, a total transformation of the Karym taiga component, the availability of substantial Middle Asian superstratum, as well as the undoubted translation of these traditions from east to west together with migrant groups.
Òhe Early Middle Ages, cultural genesis, the Bakal culture, the Sargatka culture, the Karym-like culture, the Kushnarenkovo-like culture, the Karayakupovo-like culture, pottery technology.
Berlina S.V., Kostomarov V.M., Popov N.A.
Fortified settlements of the forest Tobol-and-Ishim basin in the Bronze Age — Middle Ages (an experience of classification and analysis using GIS)
The paper presents approbation results regarding investigation methods of fortified settlements from Trans Urals using GIS methods. Following the analytical results, subject to identification being several types of fortified settlements corresponding to conditions of geographical location, and correlating with certain local types. The authors select basic criteria determining a construction of fortified settlements in certain locations.
Fortified settlements, landscape, defense architecture, defense potential, GIS, cartography.
Children’s burial places with the Early Middle AgesTurks from Altai-and-Sayans region
The article presents investigation results regarding specificity of children’s burial rites which obtained a wide circulation with the Early Middle Ages Turks from Altai-and-Sayans region and the adjoining territories. Subject to determination being general and specific characteristics regarding burial places of the said age group, as well as their social differentiation following archaeological data. The conclusions obtained in the course of investigation of the burial complexes being supplemented with data from written sources.
Middle Ages Turks, Altai-and-Sayans region, children’s burial places, burial rite, social analysis, written sources.