BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (31) (2015)
Traces of early Paleolithic age on the territory of Middle Trans-Urals
Subject to presentation being data on sporadic stone articles covered with thick patina. They were found on redeposited locations of early Paleolithic age. Sometimes they occur in later complexes where they could get as mineral raw materials for further reutilization or as sacral antiquities. Among aeruginous articles, the most noticeable ones being manual chippers, bifaces, strickles and massive fakes. Types of the articles, methods of their making and deep patina allows to refer them to early Paleolithic age.
Early Paleolithic age, redeposited sites, chippers, bifaces, strickles, patina, secondary use of ancient articles.
Lychagina Ye.L., Mitroshin Ye.N., Poplevko G.N.
Complex analysis of stone inventory from the settlement of Chashkinsky Ozero VI (after excavation results of 2005)
The article is devoted to complex analysis of stone inventory from the settlement of Chashkinsky Ozero VI. This settlement is one of the biggest and well investigated Neolithic sites on the territory of the Upper and Middle Kama basin. It was a collection of 2005 that was selected as an investigation object. In the course of work, they undertook a typological, traceological and planigraphic analysis of the stone inventory. Complex analysis allowed to identify the following typical features: prevailing of traceologically identified tools on plates over those on flakes; minor sizes of workpieces, use of different types of workpieces for different types of tools (for example, use of flakes for strickles, and plates for meat and fish knives); availability of various shapes of tools under a leading role of strickles, scrapers, and knives; absence of clearly distinct, special areas for treatment of this or that material.
The Kama basin, Neolithic age, stone inventory, typological analysis, traceological analysis, planigraphic analysis, the Volga-and-Kama Neolithic culture.
Yepimakhov A.V., Mosin V.S.
Chronology of Trans-Urals Eneolithic
The article generalizes investigation results regarding Eneolithic sites from Trans-Urals. Summarizing of calibrated radiocarbon dates made it possible to establish chronological frames of 4300–3000 (4500–2200) B.C. period, stating total or partial synchronism in the majority of the pottery types. Their combination within one and the same sites assumes that the territory was functioning as cultural continuum. Lliving space of Trans-Urals Eneolithic population covered several natural zones: forest-steppe, piedmont and forest ones. A system of relations was supported by means of annual household cycle, marital and other forms of relations.
Eneolithic, Trans-Urals, radiocarbon chronology, material culture, pottery traditions.
Pottery of the Fyodorovo culture from the settlement of Schetkovo 2 in the Low Tobol basin (results of technical-and-technological analysis)
The article presents results of technical-and-technological analysis regarding a pottery complex of the Fyodorovo culture from the settlement of Schetkovo 2. The obtained analytical data allowed to identify traditions in skills existing with the Fyodorovo settlement population regarding selection and preparation of initial plastic mixture, composing of moulding compounds, shaping of vessels and methods of treating their surfaces, as well as kilning of articles. Basing on the obtained data and their correlation with available data on other settlements from the Low Tobol basin, the Fyodorovo pottery complex from the settlement of Schetkovo 2 being considered as one of the earliest on the given territory.
Low Tobol basin, settlement of Schetkovo 2, the Fyodorovo culture, pottery, technical-and-technological analysis, ornamentation, statistical analysis.
Complexes of the Krasnoozerka culture of the Low Ishim-and-Irtysh basins
The article quotes comparative results of the Krasnoozerka culture pottery complexes from the Low Ishim and Low Irtysh basins. Subject to consideration being local distinctions regarding dynamics of the Krasnoozerka culture in each of the regions.
Low Ishim basin, Low Irtysh basin, transitional time from Bronze age to Iron àge, the Krasnoozerka culture, pottery.
Kuzminykh S.V., Degtyareva A.D.
Production of non-ferrous metal of Itkul culture (preliminary results of analytical researches)
The conducted research by methods of spectral, metalgraphic analyses revealed use of technologies of receiving of non-ferrous metal stock, peculiar and unique for an Åarly Iron àge. On the basis of statistical pro-cessing of analytical data use by metallurgists of Itkul culture of the pure oxidized copper marked by a the microstructural method inclusions of an eutectic of Cu–Cu2O and also in much smaller measure artificial bronze is established. Products were received only foundry technologies, forge completion is in rare instances noted. This model of production is characteristic for early metalmaking economies (Yamnaya Ural area, Lipchinka, Petrovka Zauralye, Garino, Volosovo cultures of Volgo-Kamye), is later during an era of Bronze and Early Iron it wasn't used anywhere. Using so archaic and rather labor-consuming technology interfaced to achievement when melting more high temperatures in comparison with the alloyed bronza, Itkul metallurgists for the purpose of a powered by deoxidation of copper modernized technology addition of iron in copper fusion. The reason of an observed paradoxical situation — use of copper not alloyed bronze, and oxidized — is covered available the richest deposits of malachite of the Gumeshevsky mine which is near itkul settlements. Itkul masters addressed to the forgotten archaic ways and technologies of processing of the oxidized copper, however the part of skills and receptions to them didn't manage to be restored, frequent cases of foundry marriage were a consequence of that. Metal of the Ural Iitkul) origin — as production (tips of arrows, knives, coppers, etc.) so raw materials — was basic for metal working of forest-steppe and steppe cultures of Western Siberia (from the Urals to Ishim) and Ural area. The part of Itkul copper, undoubtedly, came and to Prikamye, to the production centers of the ananyinsky world.
Early Iron age, Central Ural Mountains, Itkul culture, metallurgical center, metalloproduction.
Barsukov Ye.V., Bobrova A.I.
Urlyuk hillfort: historical evidences and archaeological realities
The article is devoted to analysis of written sources and archaeological data referring to Upper Ket basin. The focus of attention being Urlyuk hillfort — a fortified settlement of prince Urlyuk who headed one of non-Russian volosts at the Ket river in the early XVII century. The data on existence of that hillfort were repeatedly recorded by researchers from local population, though archaeologists never verified it. The article quotes extracts from written sources describing the location of Urlyuk hillfort together with data obtained as a result of archaeological explorations aimed at searching of that fortified locality.
Upper Ket basin, Late Middle ages, Early Iron age, archaeological exploration, Selkups, prince Urlyuk.