BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (31) (2015)
On history of the Ichkin Tartars in the last third of XVII century — XVIII century
Basing on analysis of published and new materials, the paper gives reconstruction of development regarding one of the local Turkic groups from Trans-Urals — the Ichkin Tartars. The group was formed in the Low Isyet’ basin, where differentiation occurred between forming Siberian-Tartar and Bashkir ethnoses and groups of service class Tartars. In the second half of XVIII c., due to migration of the Ichkin group from the Isyet’ into newly allocated lands, subject to formation being Al’menkul’ group of the Ichkin Tartars. In formation of the Ichkin Tartars, one could trace both participation of Tobolsk service class Tartars and, to a great extent, of the population arrived from the Low Volga basin, including service class mescheryaks.
Tartars, class, service class, peasants on quitrent, mescheryaks, Ichkin, Al’menkul’, the Sejdya-shevs, the Kul’mametevs.
«Plan» by Tobolsk land surveyor, 1806, or how he took the wish for the reality (on location of Yermak’s grave)
The article focuses on the so called «Plan» from «Atlas of Tobolsk province, 1806» by V. Filimonov, where both in the text and on the plan he points to Yermak’s burial place by the former Begishevsky yurts, with reference to «A description of Siberian kingdom» by G.F. Miller. A critical comparison of an extract from that treatise with the text of the «Plan» detected a falsification in the source. It is subject to ataman’s grave, which the land surveyor imagines «to be announced by Tartars». It was in this way that «competent» marks and signs appeared in the «Plan». Thus, he took the wish for the reality. As a historical document, the «Plan» is of no value, though of interest for geographers. In 2014 archaeologists, relying on it, covered the same way as once did the land surveyor, who imposed them that very route which turned up after everything to be a false one: Yermak’s grave was never found. An attempt to substitute «memory place» for «place in the history» has failed again.
«Atlas of Tobolsk province, 1806», land surveyor V. Filimonov, Baish-aul, Begishevsky yurts, Yermak’s grave.
On Russian borrowings in Mansi dwelling (historiographic review after materials of XVIII c. — early XXI c.)
The article gives a review of ethnographic literature on history of investigating Mansi dwelling and Russian borrowings therein in XVIII — early XXI c. In accordance with a research area in the historiography, one could distinguish two periods, with each of them being characterized by a certain degree of knowledge on Mansi dwelling and Russian borrowings therein. The author cites dwelling classifications and typologies developed for each of the periods, considering basic hypotheses on its origin and development, describing its basic types as well as particulars of the interior and borrowed elements.
Mansi, dwelling, Russian borrowings, izba, shelter, hearth, chuval, window, nailless construction, bridle construction, log house execution, sacred shelf, loft, ceiling, home sanctuary.
«Voluntary death» and «new life» in Amguem tundra (Chukotka): a wish to escape into the world of the dead Tymnanantyn
The given article analyses a concrete real-life episode happened in Amguem tundra in 1951. V.G. Kuznetsova, a Leningrad ethnographer, who carried out a continuous field work among Amguem reindeer breeders in Chukotka du-ring three years (from 1948 to 1951), recorded that incident on pages of her diary. The story, which became the subject matter of this article, was as follows. In one family where V.G. Kuznetsova had been just residing most of the time, they expected a ritual of «voluntary death». The master of the nomad camp expressed his wish to be strangled by his kinsman. However, despite traditional notions of the Chukchi on undesirability to failure such a request, the ritual was delayed and then was cancelled at all. Addressing to social-and-historical context of that time and making micro-historical analysis of the particular real-life incident, the article suggests interpretation of decisions and actions of the immediate participants of those events. The author comes to a conclusion that in the period of expansion of Russian/Soviet culture, occurring in the second quarter of XX century, people tried to reconcile the reality of concrete situations with official ideology and, at the same time, with traditional notions and practices.
Siberia, the Chukchi, voluntary death, political resistance, sovietization, ritual.
Health care in the Far North of Tobolsk province (XIX — early XX c.c.)
The article reconstructs a process of shaping a system of medical service with population in the Far North, specifying certain facts. Subject to determination being a name of the first constant doctor in the history of Obdorsk. The author raises a question on differentiated assessment of health state among native peoples, correlating spread of epidemic diseases with growth of population density due to increasing a share of newly come population, both constant and temporary.
History of medicine, health care, Far North, doctors, Obdorsk health care district, non-Russian hospital, smallpox vaccination, native peoples.
«At present, religion is passing through a deep crisis»: a response of Soviet believers to antireligious propaganda
The article is devoted to life of believers in Soviet times. Subject to analysis being program statements of the Communist party devoted to antireligious struggle and treatment of religion on the whole, making a comparison between the declared statements and actual attitude toward believers. The author considers activity principles of professional atheists, specifying basic directions of atheistic propaganda: a sphere of education and culture. By the example of school education, it is shown in what way atheistic propaganda was performed, what was a teacher’s role in that process and in building relations between religious pupils and non-believers. The paper quotes examples of using cinema and fiction for creating an image of a believer. Subject to specification being two life strategies in religious environment: socialization in the society and isolation from it. The article also quotes examples of latent religiousness, particularly in the country, and examples of the state using religious manifestations on its own account. The author comes to a conclusion that believers managed to adapt to life under total antireligious propaganda.
Freedom of conscience, religious community, believers, atheistic propaganda, antireligious work, Protestants, Christians.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church and Lutheran pastors of the Russian Empire during the First world war
A military confrontation of the Russian Empire with Germany and Austria-Hungary in the First world war significantly affected a position of the Lutheran Church in the country. It became an object of discrimination policy of the state. Under such conditions, close attention of the powers was riveted to activity of Lutheran pastors. Very often their words and actions were judged as reprehensible, resulting in measures of repressive character. The article considers difficulties the Lutheran pastors encountered during the war, misdeeds they were condemned in, and types of punishment they were imposed.
Lutheran pastors, First world war, the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Russian Empire, xenophobia, discrimination, anti-German campaign.