BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (31) (2015)
Ryabogina N.Y., Ivanov S.N., Afonin A.S., Kisagulov A.V.
Paleobotanical and archaeozoological investigation on the site of Borki 1 (Low Ishim basin in the early I millennium B.C.)
The article illustrates investigation results regarding habitat of ancient population in the early I millennium B.C. and Middle Ages on the multi-layered site of Borki 1 in the Low Ishim basin, West Siberia. The paper aims at accumulating data, practising methodical approaches and introducing new palynological, carpological and archaeozoological materials into scientific circulation. The paper cites actual data on pollen composition from cultural layer in the first settlement stage in IX–VIII cc. B.C.; on pollen, plant seeds and fossil bones of mammals in the second settlement stage in VII–VI cc. B.C.; on seed composition in the third stage of the late IV and late VI cc. A.D. For the first time, subject to presentation for the region being data on composition of carbonized vegetation macro-residues extracted from cultural layer together with the Zhuravlevo complex and medieval materials. It is shown that in the early I millennium B.C. the site of Borki 1 was surrounded with birch woods. During every stage of the cape development, significant differences in the natural background have never been identified. However, distinctions of the local vegetation on the settlement testify to a noticeable scale of human transformation in the medieval vegetation cover and distribution of weed flora. Basing on analysis of fossil bones of the Zhuravlevo habitation stage, it is shown that the horse and small cattle were not numerous within their home herd, and the economy was based on household keeping of heavy cattle. At the same time, hunting big forest ungulates as well as fishing played a significant role in paleoeconomy of the population during the second habitation stage.
Habitat, carpological, palynological, archaeozoological analysis, Low Ishim basin, transitional time from Bronze age to Åarly Iron age.
Poshekhonova O.Ye., Afonin A.S., Kisagulov A.V., Gimranov D.O., Nekrasov A.Ye., Yakimov S.A., Yakimov A.S., Bazhenov A.I.
Certain elements of burial rite with North Selkups after data of paleoecological studies
The article is devoted to investigation of certain elements of burial rites with the Upper Taz Selkups, using methods of natural sciences. Subject to recording being preferences in the choice of wood for making grave constructions. In burials of XVII–XVIII cc., one comes across pinewood and in a few cases sprucewood, while in burials of XIX c. — pinewood and cedarwood. Relying on ethnographic data, we could state preservation of a tradition using pine during four centuries, while burial constructions of cedarwood and larchwood started to be made only in XIX c. The investigation results regarding residues of funeral feast and burial food gave an insight into composition and quantitative correlation of its elements. In the course of funeral repast they ate mainly fish, to a lesser extent, upland fowl and waterfowl, together with some squirrel and reindeer meat. Burial food consisted of fish, bird cherries, cowberries and others. Predominance of fish allows to conclude on its preference in their daily diet. As to clothing, footwear and utensils, those were mainly sewn of reindeer skins, which is confirmed by ethnographic data. At the same time, using fox and weasel for making fur coats was not reflected in the culture of North Selkups.
West Siberia, North Selkups, new time, grave constructions, burial food and funeral repast, clothing, investigation of vegetation and animal residues.
Studying of successions of plant communities from the settlement of Ufa II, using method of sporo-pollen analysis
The article presents results of sporo-pollen analysis regarding sediments of medieval settlement of Ufa II. We succeeded to reconstruct vegetation from the moment of development of the settlement territory up to the present time. Subject to specification being 19 stages of succession, characterizing a periodic recovery of plant communities (demutation) on anthropogenically disturbed areas. The vegetation of the settlement in the Subatlantic period of the Holocene was transformed in the following sequence: from a synanthropized edge of mixed small-leaved-and-broad-leaved forest — into open spaces occupied by synanthropic vegetation.
Settlement of Ufa II, reconstruction of vegetation, succession of plant communities, sporo-pollen analysis.