VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 1 (32) (2016)
Semantics of an ornament of an embroidery of the North Russian headdress from funds of the State museum reserve «Tsaritsyno»
Soldatenkova D.V. (Moscow, Russian Federation)
The article introduces an item from funds of the State museum «Tsaritsyno» — a female headdress kokoshnik with the rare ornamental composition embroidered with silver threads. The details of the kokoshnik are attributed by analogy with the published earlier similar part of a headdress from Novgorod, dated with a turn of XIX century. General description of a form, decor of the item and embroidery technique are presented. The embroidered composition represents in general a vertical model of the Universe. Russian version of this image includes the central axis consists of three main motives — the blossoming world tree, of the solar goddess Makosha with the lowered hands and ancient Russian solar motive of two-headed eagle. The top world on a headdress occupies a half of the image which is filled with solar heavenly motives (located heraldic). The motive of an elk-horse is especially interesting and archaic among them. It is suggested that the headdress belonged to the young woman till the birth of her first child, perhaps, was also used in course of wedding because all images are connected to ideas of fertility, abundance, good wishes.
Key words: vertical model of the Universe, symbol, sign, motive of an embroidery, embroidery technique, embroidery style, world tree, elk-horse, birds of a peahen, two-headed eagle, bird of sirens.
Institute of archaeology of the RAS, Dm. Ul′ianov, 19, Moscow, 117036, Russian Federation