VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 2 (37) (2017)
On the comb-pit ornamental tradition and periodization of the Neolithic of the Lower Ishim basin
Zakh V.A. (Tyumen, Russian Federation)
The article analyzes the time of formation of the comb-pit ornamental tradition, its area, and periodization of the Neolithic of the Lower Ishim basin connected with the process. Lack of roads («corridors») to the Ishim and Irtysh basins and to the Baraba from the North-Western, Western and Northern territories marked by monuments whose complexes would have ceramics with the comb-pit decoration, as well as absence of enough early centers with such tradition in the «mother countries», assumed by some researchers, most likely, mean that it was formed within the limits of the Ishim basin and the Baraba region. Local complexes with divergent-scratched, divergent-scrathched-comb ornamentation probably served as a basis for its formation. However, already at early stages of the Neolithic, they had an increased number of single sequences of pits, or pits of various forms at different zones of a vessel in the region. Stratigraphical occurrence of the complex under consideration above the Boborykino-Koshkino culture in the settlements of Borovlyanka 2 and Avtodrom 2/2 and the fact that it is overlapped by dwellings containing ceramics proximate to the Sosnovka-Ostrov culture at the settlement of Serebryanka 1 are indicative of the time of formation of the comb-pit tradition or, more specifically, of the divergent-comb-pit tradition. A research of a complex in the Ishim basin, at the settlement of Mergen 7, which is close to the Kozlovo culture and chronologically follows the Koshkino culture, allows us to arrange the periodization scheme of the Ishim basin so that the Kokuy materials (with divergent-scratched-comb ornamentation) are between the Kozlovo culture and the settlement of Serebryanka 1, which is located on the Western border of the area and is close to the Sosnovka-Ostrov culture. Materials with comb ornamentation were not found in the settlement, thus the scheme of development of the comb-pit ornamental tradition there could differ, excluding a break between the Kokuy and Ekaterininsk complexes. Materials of the settlement of Mergen 7 narrow the period of the beginning of formation of the tradition under consideration. Taking into account correlation of the calibrated dates of the monuments of Mergen 7, Serebryanka 1, Protoka and Sopka 2, we argue that, most likely, it is a period between V and IV thousands BC.
Key words: Western Siberia, Ishim basin, Baraba, the divergent-comb-pit, comb-pit ornamental tradition, periodization.
Institute of the Problems of Northern Development, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation