VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 2 (37) (2017)
A NEW OLD HYPOTHESIS OF THE ORIGIN OF THE YAKUTS (ON THE OCCASION OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF A.A. SAVVIN, A SPECIALIST IN FOLKLORE, ETHNOGRAPHER, AND LOCAL HISTORIAN)
A.A. Savvin (1896–1951) was one of the first Yakut ethnographers and folklore specialists who left huge scientific heritage of which only a small article was published during his lifetime. The Manuscript collection of IHRISN of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science keeps his personal collection consisting of about 100 items with a total amount of more than 500 printed pages. The guiding idea of his works was the question of the origin of the Yakuts. A.A. Savvin didn't have time to arrange his views into a well-knit system during his lifetime, but nevertheless, his notes and reflections based on a wide use of folklore, ethnographic, linguistic, archeological and historical sources have stood the test of time. The aim of this article is to select, order and systematize his random notes and essays and to reconstruct thereby the author's vision of the problem of the origin of the Yakuts. Many ideas stated by A.A. Savvin in his manuscripts find scientific support nowadays, confirming thereby his deep understanding of the scientific problem under consideration, for example, periodization of the ethnogenesis of the Yakuts in three main stages, distinguishing of the layer of Yakut-Hun parallels, personification of ancient and medieval clans which made up the central core of the Sakha people and their culture, early (prior to Russian) occupation of Northeast outlying areas by nomadic herders, etc. Hence, this article considers the modern conceptual ideas of the problem of the ethnogenesis of the Yakuts, basing on cross-disciplinary analysis of the latest paleoethnographic data and archaeological artifacts of the last several years.
Key words: A.A. Savvin, hypothesis, ethnogenesis, the Yakuts, interaction, nations, culture.
BJARMIAN TROPES OF POETRY PIONEER — A MYTHOLOGEME IN FINNISH METAGEOGRAPHY
The article analyzes origins and interpretations of a mythologeme pioneer in Finnish culture. Its literary origins are rooted in J.L. Runeberg’s poems and O. Manninen’s «The Woodsman» (1902). The hero leaves human society and enters a silent forest. He becomes the sole master of his domain. Suddenly, he sees wood chips carried along by the river. The woodsman travels far, to the upper reaches of the river, to get rid of the unwelcome neighbor: «he discover, strikes dead». This poem has indexical and laconic tropes as ancient incantatory formulas do. In the literary Finnish language, information space is structured according to the definition kirjoitustaito, an ability to write, and lukutaito, an ability to read. The definitions are taken from the traditional worldview in which lukea means to cast a spell, and kirjoittaa means to create an ornament. This cultural dichotomy determines quasi-social division between those who produce and consume texts. Nietzschean idea of Manninen’s poem turns towards a traditional archetype, inseparability of the process of creation of a sign and its interpretation, «reading» and «writing». Literary code-switching of the image of a pioneer accompanied understanding of cultural and metageographical borders of Finland. Mythology of the woodsman is widely represented in the poetic prose of Samuli Paulaharju where history and ethnography are intertwined. The specificity of quasi-social division is reflected in the bjarmian tropes, discourses marking «red» and «white» Greater Finland.
Key words: mythologeme of the woodsman, traditional archetypes, metageography, Runeberg, Manninen, Greater Finland.
ON POSSIBILITIES OF STUDYING HISTORY AND HOUSEHOLD OF RUSSIAN SETTLEMENTS OF LONG-TERM RESIDENTS IN THE IRTYSH RIVER REGION NEAR OMSK IN THE XVIII–XX CENTURIES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VILLAGE OF ANANYINO
The article is aimed to analyze possibilities of combining written, cartographic and ethnographic sources for studying history and problems of formation and development of household complexes of long-term resident settlements in the Irtysh River region near Omsk in the XVIII–XX centuries. The main object of the study is the village of Ananyino, which does not exist nowadays. Its study helped to overcome the problem of fragmentation of collective memory in case a unified community disappears. The paper describes the living place of the members of the community and its borders. Relatively precise localization allows us to specify the nature of established links between the population of Ananyino and nearby settlements. A comparison of written and ethnographic materials makes it possible to identify a degree of influence of external factors on the development of key sectors of the household of the long-term residents in the area under consideration, as well as to specify the role of agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing in the structure of the household. At the same time, the article describes the process of searching for and analysis of the source base within the local interdisciplinary studies. The materials de-monstrate an important role of the state fiscal policy in the development of all spheres of the economic complex in the XVIII–XX centuries: fishing equipment presented in the sources, social and economic stratification of the population, which consisted mostly of service-men in the XVIII–XIX centuries, were formed under its influence. In addition, the sources indicate that in spite of the abundance of fairs and active exchange of goods carried out by the population of Tara, the residents of Ananyino didn't participate in it. Available materials also reveal the presence of specialization of individual farms, which began to take shape in the XVIII — first half of the XIX century and affected migrational processes in the course of further settlement of Ananyino residents after the village disappeared.
Key words: economy of the Russian population of Western Siberia, Irtysh River region near Omsk, Russian long-term residents, local studies.
TEMPORARY SUMMER DWELLINGS OF THE BASHKIRS OF THE INZER RIVER BASIN IN THE LATE 19th — EARLY 21st CENTURY
Temporary summer dwellings of the Bashkirs of the Inzer River basin in the late XIX — early XXI century are analyzed. Data from the State Archive of Orenburg region (Orenburg) and the Scientific Archive of the Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ufa) are used, as well as information gathered by the author during expedition trips in 2010–2011, 2016 to the villages of Gabdiukovo, Zuiakovo, Assi, Novokhasanovo, Usmangali, Inzer, Azikeevo, Aznalkino, Khusainovo, Sermenovo, Utkalevo, Uziannbash, Shigaevo of Beloretsky District, Republic of Bashkortostan. The Bashkir population, which for a long time had led a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life, had temporary and permanent settlements: the first ones included spring, summer and autumn sites, the second ones are represented by winter camps, on the basis of which auls (villages) appeared. On the cusp of the XIX–XX centuries, the Bashkirs of the Inzer River basin kept on following a semi-nomadic cattle breeding way of life, raising large numbers of horses, sheep, cows and a small number of goats. They made hay and did forestry (wood logging and transportation, they prepared firewood for factories, produced bast and tar, etc.). Mass departures to summer camps in mountainous areas stopped before the Civil War and the crop failure of 1921–1922, but some families continued to migrate in summer until the collectivization of the early 1930s. At the end of the XIX century, mainly wealthy families went to the summer pastures, and some Bashkirs, who tended cattle or were hired for work, went with them. The places of seasonal camps and dwellings in them remained traditional for a long time. Three types of temporary summer dwellings got widespread at the end of the XIX century: a hut (burama) and two kinds of cottages, which differ in form, material, and size. A hut was made of logs, cottages were made of bark, (linden bark), laths, branches. Up to date, cottages are preserved in the area under consideration, they are mounted during haymaking as an overnight stops and for storing food and clothes. Burama as a temporary dwelling during haymaking is scarcely used today.
Key words: the Bashkirs, Inzer River basin, Beloretsk district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, cattle breeding, summer dwellings, nomadic camps, burama, huts.
HOST ALTAI SOCIETY AND DEPORTED ARMENIANS IN THE CONTEXT OF PERMANENT REPRESSIONS AND DEPORTATIONS IN THE 1930–1940s: IMAGES AND CULTURAL INTERACTION
The aim of the article is to study the influence of ethnical deportations on the rural population of Altai Krai by using oral history as a method and source of ethnographic research on the example of the 1949 Armenian deportation campaign. It is asserted that the study of nations and cultures in the context of global historical processes of the XX–XXI centuries requires new approaches. The techniques of oral history which deal with historical memory are one of the ways of studying anthropological contents of historical processes. The main sources of the article are the materials of field research on the territory of Altai Krai. The research focuses on host, mainly Russian population in the context of permanent ethnical deportations of the 1940s. It is mentioned that the population of the Altai countryside became multiethnic in quite a short period of time which was related to resettlement of families and small groups of deported nations all over the territory of the region. It led to cooperative living and common experience in overcoming war period difficulties, basing on life support culture. The article compares attitudes of local population towards different waves of ethnical migrants (Germans, Armenians, Moldavians, Polish and the others), it analyses the images formed and interethnic interaction. The article identifies commitment of the deported population to consolidation with reclamation of the outskirts of the settlements and preservation of song, dance and holiday traditions. A conclusion is made about the influence of the deported population on the host society, the changes which took place in cultural, social and manufacturing spheres of the Altai countryside are described. It is pointed out that cultural exchange in difficult living conditions firstly took place in the material sphere and was connected with such basic components of life support culture as dwelling and food. As a result, ethnocultural skills of the deported population encouraged interethnic consent.
Key words: Oral history, Altai, deported nations, Russian rural population, interethnic interaction, ethnocultural influence.
Shisheliakina A.L., Bobrov I.V.
FOREIGN NATIVES: ON PRACTICES OF WEARING OF A MUSLIM HEADSCARF IN A NON-MUSLIM REGION OF RUSSIA
Using gender approach, the article describes mutually excluding standards for Muslim women who wear hijab in everyday life in one of the non-Muslim regions of Russia — Tyumen region. On the one hand, secular society imposes restrictions on wearing hijabs. On the other hand, Muslim women and Muslim community basing on religious norms insist that a woman must be «covered» when being in public. Besides, within the Muslim community it is discussed how a hijab should look, and the parties involved in this discussion stigmatize each other. In this regard, the issue of interest is to clarify what wearing a religious headscarf means for young Muslim women. What impact do hijab restrictions have on their daily lives?
Key words: Islam, a Muslim headscarf, hijab, woman, Muslim, gender, everyday practices, Tyumen region.
Bobrov I.V., Cherepanov M.S.
FRAGMENTATION OF RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY IN ISLAM (TYUMEN CASE AT THE TURN OF THE XXI CENTURY)
The social sciences have been demonstrating a steady growth of interest in Islam in recent decades. It is becoming more obvious that the Islamic faith has different, often conflicting, variations in practice. What influences the process of formation of such different versions of Islam? One way to answer this question is to study religious authority. This article is based on the empirical material gathered in Tyumen region since the beginning of the 1990s and analyzes multiplication of positions of religious authority, which is one of the manifestations of fragmentation of authority in Islam. In the late 1980s — early 1990s, basic positions of Islamic authority in the region were mullahs, abystai, astana keepers, and organizers of religious rites among the residents of a particular place. Their activities resulted in the appearance of different interpretations of Adat Islam, which included, among others, Sufi practices. In the early 1990s, new positions began to form alongside with the previously mentioned authoritative Islamic positions: the Ulema and imams. Their attempts to centralize religious authority in order to ensure uniformity of Islamic meanings and practices led to even bigger fragmentation of that authority and increased the number of dogmatic and ritual interpretations of Islam. The already existing interpretations of Adat Islam were supplemented by interpretations of different schools of Sufism, which were more and more taking shape, as well as versions of Salafism, which rejects all practices and meanings not justified by the Koran, the Sunna and fatwas of authoritative, mostly foreign, theologians. Moreover, up to date, the region has a localized Shiite interpretation of Islam too. In addition, Islamic political activists, another position, new for the regional religious field, has been formed since the late 1990s. Due to their efforts, Islam began to be interpreted as a range of religious and political concepts: from recognition of the possibility of living according to the secular laws to jihadism. Thus, the study of the materials of Tyumen region dated starting from the 1990s up to the present day identified a growth in positions of religious authority in Islam, resulting in multiplication of interpretations of Islamic teachings.
Key words: Islam, religious authority, interpretations of Islam, fragmentation of authority.