VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (39) (2017)
Stone tools in the economic activity of the population of the Late Bronze Age in the forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin
Kostomarova Yu.V.(Tyumen, Russian Federation)
presents the results of a complex analysis of stone tools from the sites of the
Late Bronze Age in the forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin. The new data
were obtained due to using petrographic, typological, traceological methods.
They characterized household productive activities of the ancient population. It
was found out that raw materials for stone working are represented, first of
all, by the local sources such as small rocks and boulders that could be moved
by waterways or are located in colluvial-deluvial sediments, reaching the
surface of the Tobol river and the Iset river; secondly, imported raw materials
originating from the fields of the Middle and Southern Urals due to the
trade-exchange relations. Pebbles and tiles of sandstone, siltstone, quar-
tzite, shale were used for household and industrial needs. Primary processing of the stone was reduced to splitting, and secondary, to lining, abrasive technology, polishing. It was the only design of working platforms, at least of the sides or of the perimeter. A multi-stage scheme was used only for making prestigious things, including still and heavy drilling. A significant portion of the tools is represented by raw debris. Minimizing the time spent on production of tools can be regarded as a progressive feature in the economic activity of the population of the Bronze Age in the Tobol river basin. The analysis of signs of use of the tools, their classification allowed us to determine the function of a significant series of products. Stone tools were involved primarily in metal processing — at the stage of casting, forging and finishing the products. Numerous pestles and passive plates were used for crushing and grin-ding of various materials. In other spheres, the stone tools were used sporadically and played a rather secondary role. As in the leather production they were replaced with bone and ceramic tools; metal tools were widely used. In general, a comprehensive analysis of stone tools from the monuments of the Late Bronze Age showed unifor-mity of materials: virtually no recorded cultural and chronological differences in the range of tools and technologies of their production were found, which shows stability and continuity of the main industries.
Key words: the Bronze Age, forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin, stone tools, raw materials, technology, functional attribution.
Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation