VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (39) (2017)
The article is dedicated to a study of top wears of guardian spirits. It is based on the materials obtained du-ring ethnographic expeditions to the areas of residence of a northern group of the Khanty, and on the items from a museum collection. The aim of the study is to reveal symbols of power and imitations of uniform in the top wear of the guardian spirits. In order to do this, on the basis of a typological analysis, signs which distinguish imitations from traditional clothing were identified, and then initial forms of the uniform were determined. It was revealed that clothing found at the sanctuaries of the Northern Khanty differs in its cut and decorations from the traditional clothes. It is represented by two types. The first type includes clothing of a uniform type, the second one, clothes which imitate the latter. The article presents three imitations, their characteristic features are described, which allow us to correlate them with the uniforms of a certain historical period. The arrangement of clothing buttons in pairs in two (three) rows was considered as the most characteristic feature of the clothes under consideration. Based on these features, a historical analysis of the clothing garment was carried out comparing it with military and civil uniforms of the past. As a result, it was found out that, according to the main features, the top wears of the guardian spirits of the Northern Khanty under consideration are to the most extent similar to the frock coats widely used in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century as top and underway clothing among various officials and employees. It was also determined that a distinctive feature of such a garment was metal hemispherical buttons sewn in a row on each side. Such buttons often had a professional and a state emblem, a sign. If a sign correlated with the Khanty traditional symbols, such buttons were granted a higher status. If it was possible, they were exchanged, bought and used to decorate the clothing of the guardian spirits.
Key words: clothes, costume, dressing gowns, jacket, frock coats, the Northern Khanty, guardian spirits, uniform, buttons, symbols of power, imitation.
Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation