VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (39) (2017)
Food resources and life support of the population in the III millenium BC on the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system
Zakh V.A. (Tyumen, Russian Federation)
Based on a reconstruction of paleolandscapes, the food resource base of the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system in the 3rd millennium BC is described. The complexes of the Shapkul, Bairyk and Andreevskaya cultures are analyzed. Their bearers represent typical groups with appropriating type of economy, based mainly on fishing with nets and, possibly, with traps. Fishing with nets is proved by settlements located, as a rule, near the water, spreading of a cultural layer containing fragments of clay weights on the coast of lakes. Hunting, most likely, played an auxiliary role. The diet could include meat of ungulates and birds, fish, eggs and various wild plants. Assuming that energy demands per day for a man are 2700 kcal, and for a woman are 2100 kcal, we can conclude that a person needed to have an annual diet consisting of approximately 73 kg of animal meat, 73 kg of poultry meat, 365 kg of fish and 730 eggs for a normal life-support. Wild plants, apparently, also formed part of the menu, but it is difficult to calculate their quantity. Keeping in mind the fullness of resources of the Andreevskoe lake system, we believe that 300 people could live on its territory at a time, and taking into account possible vo-lume of resources procured, about 80 people. Most likely, they lived in one or two villages. This number is close to the number of inhabitants of non-Slavic yurts according to the information given on the maps of 1701 by S. Remezov and of 1829 by V. Filimonov. In our opinion, the assumption that an increase in the number of monuments in the III millennium BC is related to an increase in the population engaged in fishing with nets, is unfounded.
Key words: Tobol river basin, Andreevskoe lake system, resources, life support, population size.
Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026. Russian Federation