VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (39) (2017)
Arefyev S.P.,Zakh V.A.
TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES AS AN INDICATOR OF FLUCTUATION OF WATER LEVEL IN THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM IN THE BEGINNING OF THE XIX — XXI CENTURY
The article analyzes tree-ring chronologies of contemporary pines growing on different hypsometric marks in relation to the modern level of the Andreevskoe lakes, on the low-ridges of terrace-like formations, floodplain lowlands and riams. The tree-ring chronologies from these areas, their correlation, dependence of the width of the rings on various natural factors, such as fires, harmful insects and fluctuation of groundwaters itself, reflecting the level of lakes in the Andreevskoe lake system are described. As a result of the study, 8 tree-ring chronologies were made, ecological and biological regularities were found out determining the formation of annual pine rings in the lake area due to a change in its level. The longest chronology of the lake coast for 197 years (since 1821) confirmed low water level in the lake, recorded on the map of surveyor Vasily Filimonov, created in November 1829. The use of chronologies was analyzed based on the difference in width of the annual pine rings according to the principle of contrasting biotopes (high — low, dryland — peatland), limited possibilities for reconstructions of this type based on individual ring chronologies are shown. A 174-year-old difference chronology (since 1843) was created, verified by a number of historical evidence, results of studies of lakes in the south of Western Siberia and cartographic material of the recent decades. The difference created chronology is recommended as a basis for reconstruction of the lake's level regime (possibly in combination with certain ring chronologies), although the fluctuation amplitudes can be specified for further dendrochronological reconstructions using old construction timber and fossil wood (in peat bogs).
Key words: Andreevskoe lake system, tree-ring chronologies, annual rings, fires, harmful insects, lake water level.
Bikmulina L.R.,Yakimov A.S., Kupriyanova E.V., Chechushkov I.V., Bazhenov À.I.
GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF THE ASHY LAYER (ZOL'NIC) AT THE BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENT OF STRELETSKOE-1 IN THE FOREST-STEPPE TRANS-URALS
The paper summarizes the results of a geo-chemical study of the soil samples collected from the ashy layer (zol’nic) at the Bronze Age settlement Streletskoye I in the Southern Trans-Urals and from the nearby natural deposition. The site is located on the left bank of the Ui river in Chelyabinsk region, Russia. The data on the distribution of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, sulfur, iron, titanium, rubidium, vanadium, cobalt, zinc and strontium are considered. The comparison demonstrates that concentrations of such elements as phosphorus, calcium, manganese, sulfur, rubidium exceed background values 2–3 times, while levels of potassium, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, and strontium are below background values. At the same time, humus of buried soil underneath the ashy layer demonstrates highest values that exceed the usual one 2–4 times. The statistical analysis (t-statistics) supported the conclusion of very different proportions of elements between the cultural layer and the natural soil deposition, except for vanadium, cobalt, and strontium. There are two zones of element accumulations within the cross-section of the cultural layer, which are the ashy layer and the humus horizon. The conducted analysis contributes to the understanding of the subsistence strategies and craft. The high levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, possibly sulfur and zinc suggest the dominance of livestock breeding. The pre-sence of pottery production indicated by concentrations of manganese, iron, titanium, rubidium, strontium, vanadium and cobalt which could come with raw materials (clay) and broken ceramics. The discovered ashy layer is interpreted as a midden where wastes were repeatedly burned. Thus, layers of ash are complex objects that accumulate information of the economic activities and are unique for each ancient settlement.
Key words: ashy layer (zol'nic), chemical element, cultural layer, soil, t-statistics, Student's test, the Bronze Age, settlement, the Trans-Urals.
FOOD RESOURCES AND LIFE SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE III MILLENIUM BC ON THE TERRITORY OF THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM
Based on a reconstruction of paleolandscapes, the food resource base of the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system in the 3rd millennium BC is described. The complexes of the Shapkul, Bairyk and Andreevskaya cultures are analyzed. Their bearers represent typical groups with appropriating type of economy, based mainly on fishing with nets and, possibly, with traps. Fishing with nets is proved by settlements located, as a rule, near the water, spreading of a cultural layer containing fragments of clay weights on the coast of lakes. Hunting, most likely, played an auxiliary role. The diet could include meat of ungulates and birds, fish, eggs and various wild plants. Assuming that energy demands per day for a man are 2700 kcal, and for a woman are 2100 kcal, we can conclude that a person needed to have an annual diet consisting of approximately 73 kg of animal meat, 73 kg of poultry meat, 365 kg of fish and 730 eggs for a normal life-support. Wild plants, apparently, also formed part of the menu, but it is difficult to calculate their quantity. Keeping in mind the fullness of resources of the Andreevskoe lake system, we believe that a maximum of 250 people could live on its territory at a time, and taking into account possible volume of resources procured, about 130 people. Most likely, they lived in one or two villages. This number is close to the number of inhabitants of non-Slavic yurts according to the information given on the maps of 1701 by S. Remezov and of 1829 by V. Filimonov. In our opinion, the assumption that an increase in the number of monuments in the III millennium BC is related to an increase in the population engaged in fishing with nets, is unfounded.
Key words: Tobol river basin, Andreevskoe lake system, resources, life support, population size.
Sergusheva E.A., Moreva O.L.
AGRICULTUE IN SOUTHERN PRIMORYE IN THE I MILLENNIUM BC ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOBOTANICAL DATA FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF CHEREPAKHA-13
The paper presents the results of an archaeobotanical study of charred seeds obtained with the water flotation technique on the site of Cherepakha-13. The multilevel site is located on the western seacoast of Ussuri Bay in Southern Primorye. The area of the site was totally excavated (7616 ì2) in 2015. Remains of 52 pit-dwellings, one land based dwelling, 114 pits with different functions and 26 burials were unearthed at the site. The site deposits content materials of five chronological periods: the Zaisanovskaya archaeological culture of the Late Neolithic, the Lidovskaya culture of the Bronze Age, the Yankovskaya and the Krounovskaya cultures of the Early Iron Age, the Middle Age (XII c.). The vast majority of the constructions' remains and archaeological materials belong to the Yankovskaya culture. According to the analysis of the ceramic collection of the site and its location in pit-dwellings, we distinguished two chronological periods of the site occupation by the Yankovskaya culture population. More than 150 litres of soils were studied by the water flotation in pit-dwellings of the 1st (¹ 10, 17, 18) and the 2nd (¹ 1, 48) periods of occupation by the Yankovskaya culture and from a pit-dwelling (¹ 19) of the Krounovskaya culture. 420 seeds of plants were obtained from 20 samples. Cultural plants seeds were found in all pit-dwellings. Seeds of foxtail and broomcorn millets dominated among them. We obtained the most numerous millet seeds from the samples of the pit-dwelling ¹ 48, which is 87 % of all seeds in the dwelling. One seed of nuked barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum) and one seed of soybean (Glycine max) were found in the same deposit. But there were not many remains of cultural millets in the deposits of the 1st occupation period by the Yankovskaya culture. Thus, our data demonstrates an increasing role of the millet agriculture in the 2nd period. Seeds of barnyard millet were discovered in the Krounovskaya culture pit-dwelling. It is the first finding of millet of such species in the Prehistoric time of Primorye. The archaeobotanical data from Cherepakha-13 site testify a significant role of the agriculture in the subsistence system of the Yankovskaya culture population that chose to live on the seacoast. Our data do not confirm the importance of barley for the Krounovskaya culture population.
Key words: agriculture, water flotation, seeds, foxtail, broomcorn, barnyard millets, naked barley, soybean, the Early Iron Age, I mil. BC, the South of the Russian Far East.
Sizov O.S., Idrisov I.R., Molchanova K.V.
AN ATTEMPT TO RECONSTRUCT THE ORIGINAL LANDSCAPES USING A LARGE-SCALE MAPPING OF THE TERRITORY OF THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM (INTERFLUVE OF THE TURA AND PYSHMA RIVERS)
retrospective analysis of geosystems is one of the most important methods of
implementation of the historicism principle and assessment of conditions of use
of the nature in the Holocene. The initial stage of such studies is analysis of
the modern landscape structure and its detailed mapping. The purpose of the
research is to develop methods for inventory and mapping of modern landscapes in
the reconstruction of the original (natural)
properties of anthropogenic complexes based on the interpretation of the Earth
remote sensing data using geoinformation systems. The paper presents the results
of a large-scale mapping of the restored landscapes of the territory of the
Andreevskoe lake system (the interfluve of the Tura and Pyshma rivers). In the
process of inventory and mapping of the landscape structure, special attention
was paid to the definition of invariant features of landscapes. Vegetation and
microrelief are the defining properties in the selection of species of the
tracts. In the course of the landscape study, based on heterogeneous materials
(space images, topographic maps, field surveys), 170 species of tracts belonging
9 types of terrain were identified. Based on the experience of deciphering natural complexes and geobotanical studies using DDZ, the spectral angle methods (Spectral angle) and the maximum likelihood method (Maximum Likelihood). Classification with training was carried out in the following software packages: ArcGIS 10.3, ENVI 5.3 and Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin (SCP) module for QGIS 2.18.2. A large-scale map of reconstructed landscapes obtained in digital form is a necessary basic element for spatial modeling and further studies of the life support system and dynamics of the ancient population of the Andreevskoye Lake system and the adjacent territory of the Tura and
Pyshma interfluve. A detailed cartographic database contains detailed information on the relief, type of soil and vegetation for each elementary landscape allotment, which will continue to use the resulting map as a factual basis for the evaluation of the territory resource base of the ancient and the modern population. Creation of a cartographic database by means of geoinformation systems will further involve a variety of tools for modeling and spatial analysis to solve research (archaeological) problems.
Key words: reconstruction of the original landscapes, large-scale mapping, decoding, remote sen-sing, paleolandscapes, resource base, life support system.