BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 4 (2004)
Anthropology and Paleo-Demography
The paper reports on finding a cranial roof with traces of scalping in Sajgatinsky VI burial ground (Sajgatino). According to folklore materials, a scalping tradition was well known among West Siberian people, though evidences basing on anthropological material have been discovered for the first time. Scalping technique is totally identical to that used among North American Indians.
The paper examines craniological materials (49 male and 35 female crania) from the Early Iron Age mound burial ground of Novotroitskoye-1 in the Upper Ob basin. The burial ground is dated between the 4th—3rd cc. B. C. — 3rd—2nd cc. À. C. and belongs to a range of the Kamenka culture sites.
The population that left this burial ground is treated as Europeoid one, with Mongoloid admixture. In the genesis of the Europeoid constituent, influence of proto-European layer could be traced which dominated among the population of the Andronovo (Fyodorovo) culture of the Bronze Age. The Mongoloid admixture being hetero-genous; at least two constituents of different origin could be identified, namely, the taiga West Siberian and Central Asian ones.
The identified ethnogenetic contacts point to certain similarities in race-formation of the Kamenka culture population with the Saki (in particular those from the South Lower Aral basin), and the Sargatka West Siberian groups. Contacts with Central and East Tuva tribes of the Scythian time, the Altai tribes, as well as the Usunej-Uge tribes from East Kazakhstan could be detected as well.
The article considers sex-age grouping of human beings from 29 burial grounds of the Early Iron Age in the forest-steppe Lower Ob basin, according to sampling of about 1100 individuals. A big family character of burial constructions being established. Average age at death, without regard to infant mortality, is identified as 34,7. Demographic indices for women are lower than those for men pointing to patriarchal relations in the society. During the final stage of the Kamenka culture, mortality among adolescents and youths would increase which reflects a growing number of military conflicts and a sanguinary nature thereof in the south of West Siberia by the end of the 1st millenium B. C., as well as their major impact on general demographic situation.