VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 1 (40) (2018)
THE TUNDRA NENETS WAYS OF SPATIAL ORIENTATION WITH THE USE OF CARDINAL DIRECTIONS
The article refers to the larger research project on the traditional wayfinding techniques of the Tundra Nenets who are one of the nomad peoples who possess outstanding navigational abilities. The focus of the research project is the description of the Nenets navigational knowledge and experience, an assessment of its practical effectiveness and its correlation with the way of life of the tundra people. This paper presents the traditional Nenets ways of orientation with cardinal directions where the primary interest lies on revealing the characteristic features of this kind of navigational knowledge and techniques, and their dependence on the environmental and traditional worldview factors. When navigating, the Tundra Nenets rely both on cardinal directions and landmarks, and it is specifically the first of the mentioned methods that makes them able to envisage adequately their geographical location on a large scale, creating mental maps that are closely in accordance to real maps. It should also be taken into account that the traditional Nenets way of transmission of geographic information is primarily based on oral descriptions. The results of the research showed that: 1) the north-south axis is of primary importance for the navigation of the Tundra Nenets; 2) they possess detailed information about the annual and daily cycle of motions and relative positions of celestial objects though use only a few of them directly for the determination of the cardinal directions (mainly the Sun, the Moon, Venus and the Ursa Major constellation); 3) they also apply a variety of other methods to adjust their routes and the cardinal directions, based on observations of wind speed and direction, features of the snow cover, shapes of plants, bird activity, etc.; 4) Nenets preferences in the use of navigation devices — they have rejected compass but rapidly became accustomed to satellite navigation systems — is based on methods of their wayfinding system where determination of cardinal directions is inseparable from references to local landmarks.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, wayfinding, Nenets, anthropology of mobility, indigenous know-ledge, navigation systems.
Samigulov G.Kh., Tychinskih Z.A.
NEW SOURCES ON THE HISTORY OF MURZAS KULMAMETEV
Òhe authors of the article return to the topic of the history of a well-known Tatar clan of Tobolsk servicemen Kulmametev. The article is based on the documents found in regional and central archives. Particular attention is paid to the analysis and reasoned criticism of recent publications on the topic, which challenge the conclusions of the authors of this article about the origin, status of clan representatives in the XVII century, which are crucial not only for the history of a particular clan, but also for understanding the whole history of Siberian service Tatars. The revealed archival materials confirm that the family descends from Prince Begish of the Siberian Khanate and that Kulmametevs' ancestors enjoyed a high status and became leaders of the service Tatars in the late 17th century.
Key words: service Tatars, Bukharians, Tatar leaders, the Kulmametevs, Prince Begish, Kulmamet, Avazbakey, Sabanak, landed estates.
Golubkova O.V., Kononova Yu.B.
SACRALIZATION OF SPACE AS A WAY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION THE RUSSIANS AND KOMI IN WESTERN SIBERIA
Ancestor worship was one of the most significant elements of traditional beliefs. In many cultures it is believed that the ancestors can become mythical patrons of a clan or a family (chur, domovoy (hobgoblin)). They help their descendants, protect them from the negative impact of alien spirits, sorcerers, and harmful corpses (navs). Our conclusions are based on the ethnographic field material, collected in different regions of Western Siberia, mainly among the Russians and Komi, as well as among the Ukrainians, Belarusians, Mordovians. The ancestors of these people settled in Siberia relatively recently (it took several generations, many of them remember the places from where their ancestors migrated behind the Urals, keep family traditions associated with «homeland» and migration to Siberia). For them, sacred dangerous loci are sanctuaries and cemeteries of the peoples who had settled in Siberia earlier (Khanty, Mansi, Tatars, indigenous peoples). The informants (Russian, Komi) consider abandoned graves of «aliens» and «infidels» as especially frightening places. They believe that other methods of burial and ritual ceremonies of other nations do not guarantee safety for a living person, especially for «outsiders». The field materials reflect emotional stories about ghosts and hostile spirits associated with the previous population of Western Siberia. Thus, we face the facts of ethnic and cultural divergence, based on the opposition of Orthodox and «non-Christian» (pagan, Muslim) worship. Besides, many informants (Russian, Komi) believe that the Siberian peoples have special secret knowledge and magical abilities. The Russians and the Komi used Christian amulets in order to provide protection from hostile spirits and wizards of the indigenous peoples. In addition, they seek mystical protection of their ancestors. This was true in isolation from their roots, from their native land.
Key words: mythology,sacralization, Russian, Komi, Western Siberia, «own — alien», the cult of ancestors, psychological adaptation.
LAND AND WATER ARRANGEMENT AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN YENISEI REGION IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY
This paper examines the process of land arrangement among the Khakas and water arrangement in the lower reaches of the Yenisei River in the early XX century, which affected the Kets, Dolgans, Selkups, Nenets, Enets and Evenks. The author considers water arrangement and land arrangement as parts of a single process. Land arrangement and water arrangement had different immediate causes, but they were of the same essence: the government secured its rights for natural resources: lands in the south of Yenisei region and fishing areas in the north of the region. During the land arrangement resettlement, the officials withdrew the land from the use of the Khakas people. The author argues that the withdrawn land was more than 744 500 dessiatins (more then 800 000 hectares). But it wasn’t ethnicity-based discrimination, because the land was taken away from the Russian people too. On the contrary, the officials responsible for relocation tried to give the Khakas people land above the limit. Fishing areas in the north of Yenisei region were withdrawn from the use of the indigenous peoples and the Russian people. It had been planned to lease fishing areas. So, there was no ethnicity-based discrimination in the north of Yenisei region. The author also argues that the goal of land and water arrangement was to create legal conditions so that big business could enter Siberia. For example, a large capitalist sheep farm «Vladimir Alekseev» was created in the south of Yenisei region. It was built on the lands that had been taken away from the Khakas people. It had been planned to lease fishing areas to big business in order to organize high-yield fisheries in the north of Yenisei region. «Enisejskaya kompaniya parohodstva» (Yenisei steam navigation company) received a lease. But that enterprise didn’t organize high-yield fisheries. It subleased the fishing areas to the local population. The goal wasn’t reached. Thus, we can conclude that government's activity in the south of Yenisei region was successful, and in the north it was a failure.
Key words: land arrangement, water arrangement, Yenisei governorate, the Khakass, Northern Yenisei region, fishing industry, capitalist economy.
THE NENETS LANGUAGE FROM CENSUS TO CENSUS (ACCORDING TO THE DATA FOR THE NENETS OF YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT)
This article deals with changes in the language situation among the Nenets of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District based on published and unpublished data of the All-USSR and All-Russian Censuses in the second half of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st centuries. Statistical facts allow us to see and analyze the situation in the whole district. According to the historiographic review, such detailed analysis among the Nenets on the base of mass statistical data has not been carried out. The article analyzes knowledge and command of languages among the Nenets, their distribution according to the native languages including the Nenets people living in towns and rural settlements, the distribution of urban and rural Nenets by age groups, native and second languages. The differences between men and women are accentuated. Results of the research demonstrate that the current language situation among the Nenets of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District surely shows a distribution and knowledge of the Russian language in the first decade of the 21st century and a high level of bilingualism. These can be considered as an influence of modern processes of globalization and internationalization, formation of an information society, the growth of urban and sedentary population and of the level of education, appearance of new occupations among them. Involvement of reindeer herders in the world process of economic, political and cultural integration is inevitably accompanied by the acquiring of values and stereotypes of the dominant Russian society and therefore by an increasing number of people who can speak Russian. Sometimes it occurred to the detriment of their native Nenets language. The function of the Nenets language is being narrowed while the ethnic consciousness is preserved at a high level. Nevertheless, we can mention some differences for a local group of the Nenets. The level of proficiency in native language is higher in regions where nomadic reindeer herders live. On the contrary, this level is lower in areas considered as a periphery of the reindeer breeding where fishing traditionally plays a big role in their subsistence, and the way of life is semi-sedentary or sedentary. It can be predicted that the number of the Nenets who know and use the Russian language, including as a mother tongue will only grow. According to the data of the last All-Russian Census, the intensity of linguistic assimilation by the Russian speaking majority has been developing faster in comparison with previous years.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, All-Russia census, All-USSR census, language situation, population distribution by sex, age and language.
A CUCKOO MAIDEN FROM IURTY PROTOCHNYE (ON THE LOCAL FEATURES OF THE CLOTHES OF THE OB MANSI GUARDIAN SPIRITS IN THE XIX — BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY)
The article is aimed to study images of a female guardian spirit in the form of a cuckoo. It existed in one of the settlements of the Ob Mansi in the XIX — early XX century. The image had been considered lost for a long time, and it was discovered by the author in a museum archive. The article provides its detailed description to determine features of the costume. Based on the comparative typological method, the material, cut, ornaments and other specific features are analyzed. It was found out that the costume of Cuckoo maiden guardian spirit consists of a traditional clothing set of the Ob Mansi. It usually includes a gown shirt, a robe and a kerchief. In the case under consideration, a wooden sculpture in the form of a bird is dressed in two shirts, five robes and three kerchiefs. The robes and shirts are sewn by hand and have a traditional Mansi cut. The composition and the cut of the costume set of Cuckoo maiden image reflects the features of the women's clothing of the Ob Mansi, of the Middle Ob and Northern (Berezovo and Kazym) Khanty of the late XIX and XX centuries. At the same time, such adornments typical of the women's clothes of these Mansi and Khanty groups as embroidery with beads, coloured threads and applied ornaments are not represented on the robes and shirts of Cuckoo maiden. But the clothes have another inherent characteristic which is a coin attached to them in some way. It is assumed that these two features of the clothes, the lack of ornamentation and the presence of coins, are sacred symbols which aim at emphasizing a special status of this image.
Key words: image of the guardian spirit, clothes of the guardian spirit, sacred symbols, image of the cuckoo, religion, cult, rituals, the Mansi, peoples of North-West Siberia.