VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 2 (41) (2018)
Zotinskoe III settlement, a fortified center of Trans-Ural metallurgists of the Early Iron Age: inventory and osteological complex
Borzunov V.A.(Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
In 1974 and 1977, archaeologists of the Ural State University excavated plots (441 m2) of the defensive system and the inner site of a fortified center of the Early Iron Age, located at the Bagariak River in the foothill part of the forest Trans-Urals. Ceramics of the Itkul culture, animal bones, a bone triangular arrowhead were found in the layer of the early unfortified settlement, under the embankment; pottery of the Itkul culture (first type), including production vessels, were found in the embankment; animal bones and slags were found in the ditch. Fragments of an Itkul «dining-room» (first type) and industrial ceramic ware, bones of domestic and wild animals, slags, a flat-bottomed «censer» made of stone talc, ceramic and clay discs — «spindles» with a hole in the center (probably, details of an archery device for obtaining fire), a bone piercer, a dagger-like point, copper or bronze objects — a wheel-shaped casting (ornament or psaltery) and a rectangular ornamented buckle with a hook, as well as heavily drained iron knives and shards with iron «rivets» of unclear purpose were found at the inner site of the hill-fort. A part of the Itkul ceramics and bones of animals lay under adobe platforms. An imported antique bead of orange carnelian was found near the embankment. The slag bulk was concentrated between the clay pads, they were not found in the embankment. Bones belonged to wild and domestic species: wolf, bear, roe deer, elk, large and small cattle, horse. Remains of domestic animals prevailed (227 bones from 18 individuals against 71 bones from 16 individuals). Horse bones (159 from 8 individuals) and roe deer (52 bones from 10 individuals) represent the major part of the collection. The Gamayun (VII–IV centuries BC), Vorobyevo and Gorokhovo (VI–IV centuries BC) ceramics of the Early Iron Age, medieval pottery, and products of XIX–XX centuries are represented by single findings. The Itkul’ complex dates back to the IV–II centuries BC.
Key words: forestry Trans-Ural region, settlement of metallurgists, the Early Iron Age, ceramics, tools, ornaments, osteological remains.
Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin, prosp. Lenina, 51, Ekaterinburg, 620083, Russian Federation