VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (43) (2018)
The ceramic complex of the Mayma archaeological culture
Kazakov A.À. (Barnaul, Russian Federation)
The Maymà archaeological culture was designated more than 25 years ago; however, no attempts have been undertaken since then to scrutinize this important cultural and chronological entity. Despite the accumulation of a large amount of ceramic complex material, which is known to be the most representative source, the vast majority of this material is yet to be analysed. In this work, the author investigates published data on ceramic complexes found at the Maymà archaeological culture site using standard qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. The conclusions obtained by qualitative analysis according to 5 parameters (shape of vessel, shape of bottom, shape of neck, any ornamental element, ornamental composition) were additionally tested by cluster analysis. Three groups of complexes, corresponding to the 3 developmental stages of the Maymà archaeological culture, were identified as Sailap, Gornoelban and Novozykovî on the basis of a correlation of the qualitative and quantitative data. Available dating information allowed the author to develop a relative chronology of the stages. It is shown that the earliest was Sailap, then Gornoelban, and finally Novozykovî. Absolute dating for the 3 stages is proposed as follows: Sailap — 1st century B.C. — 4th century A.D.; Gornoelban — 4th–6th centuries A.D.; Novozykovî — 6th–8th centuries A.D. A comparison of the characteristics of the ceramic complexes at the diffe-rent stages revealed several distinct evolutionary patterns. A comparison of the ceramic complex from the prece-ding period found in this region (Bystryankà archaeological culture) with the Maymà culture revealed no common features. This allowed a conclusion to be drawn that the population migrated to the territory of the middle section of the Biya river (where the complexes of the earliest Sailap stage are located) and subsequently spread over the entire region of the Maymà archaeological culture. A hypothesis is advanced concerning the later transformation of the Maymà archaeological culture as a result of its merger with the Odintsovo culture as evidenced in the artifacts of the Basandaikà archaeological culture.
Key words: ceramics, morphology, ornament, archaeological culture, stage, evolution, analysis.
Barnaul Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
Chkalova st., 49, Barnaul, 656038, Russian Federation