VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (43) (2018)
Fedorov R.Yu., Abolina L.A.
MATERIAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIAN MIGRANTS in the BRATSK DISTRICT: IDENTITY MARKERS
At the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from Belarus, Ukraine and the Pskov province founded a number of settlements in the territory of the Central Angara region. Migrants brought with them the specific features of their traditional culture and economic activity, which were different from those typical for the local Russian population. The empirical basis for the research was formed by the materials of an ethnographic expedition conducted in 2017 in the territory of the Bratsk district (Irkutsk region, Russia). The research was aimed at identifying various markers of the ethnocultural identity of Belarusian peasant migrants in their material culture and at investigating the interactions of Belarusians with their ethnic environment. It is found that the ethnic identity of Belarusian migrant descendants is currently characterized by a high level of variability across different families. Certain representatives of the senior generation consider themselves as Belarusians. At the same time, the majority of informants emphasize in their oral stories that only their ancestors were Belarusians. The culture of food among the first Belarusian migrants had a number of distinct features. Thus, in comparison with Russian settlers, Belarusians tended to consume more vegetables, rye bread and pork. The first generation of the Belarusian migrants preferred to make clothes according to their ethnic traditions; however, the subsequent generations of migrants borrowed many clothing items from the local population, which were more practical for the local climatic conditions. A visual survey of dwellings and other buildings indicates that the national architecture of the Belarusian migrants still have a number of features introduced from their homeland. At the same time, these features have undergone certain transformations over the course of the 20th century, as a result of adaptation to a more severe climate and introduction of improved construction technologies. In comparison with the immovable objects of traditional material culture, the transformation of such cultural manifestations as cuisine and clothing is shown to be a more prolonged process.
Key words: Belarusians, Bratsk district, peasant resettlements, ethnocultural identity, subsistence, material culture.
Liskevich N.A., Kopyltsova I.Yu., Porshunova L.S.
THE EFFECT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON THE PRACTICE OF REINDEER HERDERS IN THE SUB-POLAR URALS
In this paper, we aim to determine the role of weather conditions in the annual industrial cycle of reindeer her-ders inhabiting the Sub-polar Urals. To this end, we analyse the knowledge accumulated by the local population about natural conditions significant for their production practices and weather forecasting. Main research sources consisted in the materials of field ethnographic studies conducted in 2018 across the territory of the rural settlement Saranpaul in the Berezovsky district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Yugra). The data was collected using the method of semi-formalized interview with the residents of Saranpaul and the Shchekurya village. Among the informants were ancestral reindeer herders, specialists and heads of reindeer farms. Following the treatment and analysis of the obtained data, we have revealed seasonal difficulties concerned with grazing management, as well as changes in the dates and routes of herd migration. The practical knowledge and skills of reindeer herders are shown to include the ability of operational and long-term observation of the weather, experience in forecasting and evaluating changes in hydrometeorological conditions, the ability to determine the impact of climatic conditions on both the food supply, and the behaviour and health of deer. The experience of observing climatic conditions shows that the climate is becoming milder and that the number of anomalous weather phenomena is increasing. As a result of climate change and a number of other external factors, reindeer herders in the territory under study have been forced to change the timing and routes of herd migration. Thus, the winter grazing lands in the Sosva river valley have ceased to be used, and deer is being gazed in the mountains all year round.
Key words: Komi, Mansi, Nenets, Saranpaul reindeer company, signs of weather.
Konev A.Yu., Poplavskiy R.O.
THE GIFT IN THE POLICY AND PRACTICE OF SIBERIAN NON-ORTHODOX PEOPLE CHRISTIANISATION (BASED ON MATERIALS FOR WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 16th — 18th CENTURY)
In almost all societies, the rites of passage are accompanied by the ritual of gift giving. Baptism is one of the key transition rites in the Christian tradition. At the first stages of the Russian conquest of Siberia, the conversion of heterodox believers from the indigenous population into the Orthodox faith involved two intersecting processes, with the first being aimed at religious conversion itself and the second — at making the indigenous population to be further rooted in the Russian allegiance. In this article, we set out to approach these processes using the gift theory pioneered by M. Mauss and elaborated by contemporary economists and social anthropologists. Since M. Mauss developed his theory using the example of stateless societies, our research was based on findings achieved by N.V. Ssorin-Chaikov. His research into the phenomenon of gift relations between the state and its citizens is mainly based the Hobbesian concept. We found out that, until the first decades of the 18th century, the process of conversion into the Orthodox Church not only concerned the religious aspect, but also played an important role in turning a yesterday’s «non-Orthodox» into a fully valid subject of the Russian Tsar. By allowing a non-Orthodox believer to be baptized, the state sought to establish or strengthen its sovereignty over a new convert. As early as at the proclamation stage, new converts accepted a free gift from the state — a «new time», and, a new quality of allegiance, which implied their loyal service. In return for the Christianisation, the state gifted new subjects with money and new clothes. In the second half of the 18th century, the gifts were substituted by privileges in tribute payment. The baptized representatives of the Siberian native elite could gain acceptance and prolong their status of «volost strongmen». The quality and amount of gifts presented by secular authorities and godparents were intended to mark the status of both the donator and the gifted, building up a system of hierarchical relations and incorporating newly baptized people into a particular social group.
Key words: christianization, gift theory, non-Orthodox («inovertsy»), Siberia, conversion, allegiance.
LEGAL STATUS OF MUSLIM CLERGY IN THE TOBOLSK PROVINCE AT THE END OF 18th — BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY
The establishment of the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly at the end of the 18th century marked a new stage in the relationship between the state and the Islamic community in the Russian Empire. The state took ano-ther step towards the implementation of such a key principle in its confessional policy, as the state control over all religious institutions in the country. During the period under study, the government regulated the procedure for the occupation of Muslim religious positions by having delegated the right of conducting clergy exams to the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly. However, in the first third of the 19th century, a part of the Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province fulfilled their duties without passing such exams, acting on the basis of the customary law norms. In later periods, only single cases of the violation of the official procedure for the occupation of Muslim clergy positions were recorded. During the 19th — early 20th centuries, the government tightened the requirements for candidates for the positions of Muslim clerics and the procedure for their appointment by introducing restrictions in terms of age, education, knowledge of the Russian language, etc. The involvement of Islamic institutions in the system of administrative management in the Russian Empire was also carried out by delegating some state functions, such as civil registration, notary service and court procedures, to the Islamic clergy. At the same time, Islamic «spiritual officials» who served in the parishes did not receive any state allowance and were not exempted from paying their duties. They were allowed to get a tax benefit at the initiative of their communities; however, parishioners were frequently unable to take on the maintenance of their clergy due to a poor economic situation in the Tobolsk province. The Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province, similar to all Muslims, were exempted from military service. This provision gave them equal rights with other members of the parish, although distinguishing them from their colleagues in the Orenburg district. For the latter, exemption from the state military service was a privilege. In the case of committing offenses, the Muslim clergy were subject to penalties and were to face Islamic or secular trial. In 1850, they received exemption from corporal punishment. By the nature of their professional activities, the Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province constituted a specific social group endowed with certain privileges from the state.
Key words: Islam, Tobolsk province, Muslim clergy, Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly, legal status, Tatars, Bokharan.
PROBLEMS OF TRAINING TEACHERS FOR NATIONAL SCHOOLS IN THE TRANS-URALS IN 1930s–1950s (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE TOBOLSKY TATAR PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGE)
The article discusses the activities of the Tatar Pedagogical College, which was functioning in the city of Tobolsk in the 1934–1955 period. It was the only educational institution in the Urals, whose activity was aimed at training pedagogical personnel for Tatar primary and secondary schools. For the first time, based on materials from the archives of the city of Tobolsk and field research, an attempt was made to restore the picture of the organization of the educational process in the school. It is revealed that the school periodically encountered such problems as the shortage of teaching staff, insufficient provision of educational and methodological literature and inept leadership on the part of higher authorities. Despite all the difficulties, the school graduated qualified teachers every year. It is noted that the teaching of basic subjects was conducted in the school in the Tatar literary language, which was not native to the majority of students. The educational reforms in the USSR led to the gra-dual ousting of the Tatar language and culture from the content of general education, therefore in 1955 the Tatar Pedagogical College in Tobolsk was closed.
Key words: Tatar Pedagogical College, Tobolsk, elementary education, incomplete secondary schools, curricula, pedagogical practice, employment.
THE MUSLIM LANDSCAPE OF THE URBAN DISTRICT OF TYUMEN: PLACES, SIZE AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC COMPOSITION OF PRAYER MEETINGS
Ostrovskaya E.A., Alexeeva E.V.
DIGITAL DIMENSION OF CONFESSION: RESULTS OF STRUCTURED FIELD OBSERVATION
This article investigates the digital dimension of confession using the methods of structured observation and content analysis. When investigating religious practices, contemporary sociologists and anthropologists undertake their inquiry in an essentially changed social and cultural reality. The specifics of this reality can only be understood provided that the whole range of communicative spaces of religious interactions is taken into account. Field observations of religious communities necessarily involve two dimensions of analysis: face-to-face and virtual forms of interaction. Virtual analysis implies the online monitoring of structural observation units. Synchronization of online and offline analysis dimensions allows the diversity of the interaction contexts under study to be revealed. In addition, it enables a researcher to grasp the communication that is taking place between the actors in its completeness, which is always a hard task. In this paper, for the first time, confession is investigated by analysing communication within Internet communities organized by Orthodox temples in the city of Ekaterinburg. Research data was collected using the methods of structured observation (on the complete enumeration basis) and content analysis. The research was carried out in the March 2018 — July 2018 period. For the analytical purposes, we defined confession as a social interaction presented in structured units. These units included the priest, congregation, time of confession, space, confession as a ritual and confession as a sacrament. The results of the online structured observation of these units were presented in the form of tables. A unique methodological feature of this research consists in the application of the method of structured observation to an object in its digital self-presentation. The studied digital resources included the websites of Ekaterinburg Orthodox temples, YouTube channels and themed vk.com pages of believer communities. Using content analysis, we have identified which structural units of confession most frequently appear in virtual themed communication threads in Ekaterinburg.
Key words: structured observation, structural units of observation, content analysis, thick description, religious communication, Orthodox digital landscape of Yekaterinburg.