VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 1 (44) (2019)
Collection of horseshoes in the holdings of Museum Complex named after I.Ya. Slovtsov
One of the earliest crafts practised in Russian urban centres was blacksmithing, necessary for the manufacture of tools for all types of material production. One of the most intrinsic functions of a blacksmith consisted in forging horseshoes. The horseshoe typology was proposed by A.N. Kirpichnikov. Type 1 includes horseshoes in the form of a semicircle with a toe caulk, which are characteristic only for Russia and existed from the middle of the 11th to the 17th centuries, while the second later type took the form of a three-quarter oval with two heel caulks with a large number of holes for nails and fullering. The collection of horseshoes in the Tyumen Local History Museum has 22 specimens: 12 of these are random finds or brought from historical expeditions around the Tyumen region, while the remaining 10 originate from archaeological excavations in Tyumen in 1988. In the first case, all horseshoes belong to the second type in the form of a three-quarter oval, having an overall length of 11–14 cm, a width of 11–13,5 cm, an inside width of 1,6–2,5 cm, thickness of the shank 0,5–1 cm and 6 holes in the nail groove. There are differences in the number of caulks and the presence of clips (7 of 9 horseshoes have three caulks having a comb-like shape (5) or with a rectangular area). Five of the horseshoes have clips to protect the front of the hoof. Four identical horseshoes, lighter than others, are made of shiny metal having entered the museum as a gift from a Tyumen Gypsy family. In archaeology, horseshoes are represented by fragments. The earliest specimen is represented by a sickle-shaped horseshoe with one caulk (type 1), dating back to the 17th century. The remaining 9 horseshoes are of type 2. Seven horseshoes with 2–3 caulks, 11–12,5 cm long, 1,7–2,5 cm wide shank, 0.5–1.2 cm thick shank, with heel caulks with a rectangular platform (4 pc.) and comb-like (3 pc.). On one horseshoe a rectangular third caulk is noted at the toe. Two horseshoes from the archaeological collection have clips. The predominance of horseshoes with caulks, which were used in winter, is noted. Analysis of the collection shows that the well-established forms of horseshoes, common throughout all of Russia, were used in Siberia.
Key words: archeology, accidental findings, donation, excavation, blacksmithing, horseshoes.
Features of production of clay ware dishes in Komi-Zyryan culture, North West Siberia from the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th century
The availability of clay, its natural characteristics (plasticity, formability, low melting strength) and the simpli-city of manufacturing techniques made it possible to satisfy domestic household needs for ceramic ware. For Komi-Zyryan peoples, pottery production from the second half of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries was characterised by the coexistence of two traditions: stucco and use of the potter's wheel. The moulded technique is characterised by building up from the base using two methods of joining the separately-made base and vessel walls. Archaic techniques of pottery manufacture survive in the method of shaping the bottom and walls of a vessel using a form-model and firing a pot in a fire. Pottery production was concentrated in the hands of women and was defined as a home industry. The use of a hand pottery wheel, which appeared at the turn of the 19th to 20th century, did not change the technique of manufacturing the vessel; it was used only to impart aesthetic characteristics. The appearance of the potter's foot circle in the 1930s led to the appearance of an exhaust method for modelling a pot, which was not widely used in home production. This new technology using the foot pottery wheel is defined as a male craft. Both technologies were characterised by firing in the Russian kiln; much less often, master craftsmen equipped special kilns for firing. When «hardening» the moulded vessel, a flour solution was used, which gave it a black colour. Instead of scalding while firing in a special kiln, pottery artisans used a lead slip. The range of pottery is represented by two large groups (cupped and pot-shaped), categorised by the ratio of the height of the pot to its diameter. Cup-shaped vessels are represented by pitchers and bowls, and pot-shaped vessels by cans with a cylindrical body and pots with a rounded body.
Key words: Komi (Zyryan), sculpted method of making pottery, handicraft production of pottery.
Interaction between humans and domestic deer on Chukotka in the modern period (anthropological study)
This article analyses the dynamics of interaction between human groups (camps or deer herding communities) and herds of domestic reindeer on Chukotka in the 20th and early 21st centuries. The author uses the evidence of material culture, considers the autonomous agency of material objects, the independent significance of practices and everyday life. An important methodological prerequisite is the analysis of the nature of power and its manifestations. The author addresses the relationship between architecture and domestic life (Ingold, 2000); considers the changing balance between centralised and localised authority (Mann, 1986). The author shows that in traditional reindeer herding a partner relationship between human and animals was established. Initially, the Chukchi were followed a policy that deer should continue as effectively wild and untamed. Shepherds did not aim for total control of the herd. Grazing patterns were almost entirely uncontrolled. Herders would leave the flock unattended for long periods. Men and deer were in an equal relationship since both were reliant on and limited by their physical capability. In the Soviet period the ideology of human power over natural phenomena and environment became prevalent. The leading ideology in relation to herders and deer became the establishment of centralised control. Chukotka reindeer herding became a part of the government’s agrarian policy. In Soviet collective farms a strong control over herders and deer was established. The aim of the Soviet authority was to make reindeer more domestic and human-dependent. Herders were instructed to constantly guard the deer herd. Reindeer were protected from predators and gadflies. The Chukchi were not always in agreement with these innovations. They continued to believe the deer is meant to be wild and move around freely. In the post-Soviet period the prevailing political and economic trend has been the transition to liberalization and democratization. The control of deer herding was now been delegated to regional authorities. This local authority has to conform to national policy, but control over herding activities has significantly decreased. Nowadays, Chukchi manage their deer using cross-country vehicles, snowmobiles and ATVs. The use of new technical devices in the tundra has had the effect of reducing human dominance over animals.
Key words: Chukotka, reindeer herding, interaction with animals, partnership, domination, power, hierarchy, autonomy, material objects, technology.
Istomin K.V., Habeck J.O.
Soils of the cryolithozone and the traditional land use of the indigenous populations of North-Eastern European Russia and Western Siberia: research problem statement
In this paper, ethnographic material on the Komi reindeer herders of eastern Bolshezemelskaya tundra and the Nenets reindeer herders of southern Gydan Peninsula is used to show how soil processes, which take place in the cryolithozone, can affect the life and economic practices of reindeer herding groups. It is demonstrated that such an impact can be direct as well as indirect. The direct impact consists, for example, in the influence of the permafrost on soil denaturing and, therefore, on the thixotropic properties of the soil. This affects the probability and the speed of soil turning into mud under the mechanical influence of reindeer trampling. Herders have to consider this probability and consider speeds of movement of the herd when they choose a camping place, plan the duration of their stay in this place and perform certain herding operations (e.g. rounding up the herd). The indirect impact continues through the permafrost’s role in the microlandscape formation as well as through its influence on vegetation. The both play an important role in determining reindeer behaviour and affect the way tundra can be navigated on a reindeer sledge. The manner and degree to which these impacts influence reindeer herding practices depend on the herding technology, which differs between the two ethnic groups. Another example of the indirect impact can be seen in the huge role thermokarst processes play in the formation and change of tundra aquasystems. The formation of thermokarst lakes, their draining and formation of dry lake reservoirs with their typical hyperproductivity of biomass poses both challenges and new possibilities for reindeer herding. The relationship between permafrost soil processes and reindeer herding practices should be considered in order to allow a more accurate assessment of the consequences ongoing climatic change can have for the life and economy of northern aboriginals. Therefore, a study of this relationship represents a valid scientific topic crossing the borders between biology, geology and cultural anthropology.
Traditional values of Siberian peasants within the framework of Russian modernisation in the 19th — early 20th century
number of indicators of changing values of rural populations during the
transition from a traditional society to an industrial one are examined through
the lens of modernisation theory. These indicators include the deve-lopment
of social health care initiatives of rural communities in Tobolsk Governorate in
the late 19th —
20th century, other new elements in everyday life of the peasants and the new methods of land evaluation they applied. Relying on archival and published sources, we reveal the participation of rural communities in the creation and funding of rural hospitals and feldsher’s clinics. The significant growth in the number of registered patients and the increase in the sale of non-prescription drugs in the villages show that the trust of the people in official health care provision was growing. Giving a suburban village as an example, we demonstrate the changes in the peasants’ everyday life, such as new occupations, changing patterns of consumption, new leisure activities and a shift in faith from Old Belief to the official church. We also describe new approaches to land evaluation used by the rural population. Thus, when selling land, the members of the peasant communities in the suburban settlements were evaluating it not according to the quality of the land, its fertility and the prospect of large crops, but according to a market price dictated by the development of transport systems, industry, trade and the city growth.
Key words: traditional worldview, social initiative, health care, feldsher’s station, sale of non-prescription drugs, daily life, Tobolsk Governorate, rural community.
Patterns of emigration among Ural Germans in 1929–1930 (based on local research)
In the 20th and early 21st century, the South Ural region, which is located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, was the focus of routes of cross-border migration. This migration was both voluntary and forced. Ethnic German peoples have played a prominent role in the ethnic history of the region over the past three centuries. Russian Germans are a clear example of a «people on the move» (in German «Volk auf dem Weg»). The history of this ethnic group is inextricably linked with migration and adaptation to the conditions in the host society. In this case, we can talk about a kind of migratory ebb and flow, when in certain historical periods the emigration of Germans from Russia increased. One of these pages in the history of Russian Germans is the period of collectivization. In this article, the story about the emigration attitudes of German colonists in the Troitskiy district of the Ural Region in the winter of 1929–1930 is reviewed. Material for the article is provided by documents of the state archive of the Chelyabinsk region. This case-study fits well into the general context of the history of Russian Germans during the period of collectivisation and substantively complements the history of the Germans of the Urals. The transformations that were carried out in the villages led to an increase in desire to emigrate among the German population. The author describes the situation that developed in the German colonies of the Troitskiy district. German colonists retained their traditional ways of life and mindsets, so they did not have the opportunity to take part in socialist reconstruction of the countryside. German peasants were perceived by the authorities as holding on to alien ideologies and being a favourable environment for hostile propaganda. The forced modernisation of the Stalinist period (especially collectivisation and the «cultural revolution») became a powerful factor that transformed the entire way of life of Russian Germans and their ethno-cultural identity.
Key words: building socialism, collectivization, national minorities in the USSR, Germans in the Urals, German colonies, migration behavior, the emigration movement of Russian Germans, the Troitskiy district, historical localism.
Rocheva À.L., Varshaver E.A., Ivanova N.S.
Integration of second-generation migrants from Transcaucasia and Central Asia in the Tyumen region: educational trajectories and employment
This study examines the integration of second-generation migrants from Central Asia and Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) in the Tyumen region, namely their educational and employment trajectories as well as socio-economic characteristics of their parents and the regional context of integration. The paper is based on the analysis of 169 interviews in eight localities of the region. This fieldwork is part of a larger project on second generation migrants in Russia which is conducted with mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) and is the first all-Russia endeavour to study second generation migrants who are young adults (18–35 years old). The authors use a broad definition of second-generation migrants, including those whose parents moved to Russia and who themselves graduated from a Russian school no matter whether they were born in Russia or moved to Russia as children. The paper discusses the history of settlement of the region in the Soviet period that laid grounds for the region’s multiethnic composition and migration flows, which conti-nued after the collapse of the USSR. The transformation of migration patterns from national to international mobility has not led to significant changes in the characteristics of the migrants who have given birth to the second-generation migrants. However, notwithstanding the period of migration, these parents of the second-generation migrants differ in terms of education, qualifications and other socio-economic characteristics as well as migration trends. The educational and employment trends of the second-generation migrants as well as other young people are closely connected with the local and regional context. First, the relatively high wealth of the region due to its leading role in the oil extraction industry, together with the widespread aspirations towards higher education result in a large percentage of second-generation migrants who pursue university degrees. Second, the regional labour market centred around the oil industry provides opportunities for the university graduates to be employed not only in the big cities but also in the small towns where they were raised, which leads to their return there.
«Assignment trips to the North» as an experience of «communitas»
The specific practice of assignment trips by teachers from large regional higher institutions to work in affiliated outposts operating in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the 1990s to the first half of the 2000s is investigated. Under the conditions of the «educational boom», expressed, in particular, in the large-scale «branching» of small northern cities, when almost all of them established networks of affiliated outposts, the «rotation-based» work of the faculty members became a mass phenomenon. «Assignment trip to the North» involved a rather radical, albeit temporary, change of lifestyle. It included three stages: 1) trip to the outpost; 2) «life on the outpost»; 3) return home. The passage by individuals through each of the stages can be correlated with the stages of the classic rite of passage highlighted by A. van Gennep (rites de passage). The first and third stages were associated with a long journey: the trip to the outpost corresponded to the separation phase (separation), during which the individual was detached from the social structure and certain cultural obligations of the «home» (family and «head university»), returning home — the recovery phase (reaggregation), when individuals regain the rights and obligations of a «structural» type, forcing them to structure their behaviour in accordance with usual norms and ethical standards. On the basis of in-depth interviews of rotational teachers, their personal work and leisure experience «at the outposts» is reconstructed, the central point of which was the experience of being releasing from normative behaviour into communitas (in the meaning of V. Turner), which is expressed, in particular, in the temporary shift of norms and ethical standards. It is concluded that the experience of communitas was a specifically northern phenomenon, since it did not manifest itself under the conditions of the work of the same rotational teachers in other, not northern, affiliated outposts. In other words, the North represents in this case a special world of justification (in the meaning of L. Boltanski and L. Thevenot), with its own logic of substantiation of behaviour that cannot be reduced to the logic of other worlds.
Key words: affiliated branch, Assignment trip in the North, communitas, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.